The mass balance of polythermal ice masses is critically dependent on the proportion of surface-generated meltwater that subsequently refreezes in the snowpack and firn. In order to quantify this effect and to characterize its spatial variability, we measured near-surface (26%, resulting in a 32% increase in net accumulation. This ‘seasonal densification’ increased at lower elevations, rising to 47% 10 km closer to the ice-sheet margin at 1860 m a. s. l. Density/depth profiles from nine sites within 1 km2 at ∼1945 m a.s.l. reveal complex stratigraphies that change over short spatial scales and seasonally. We conclude that estimates of mass-balance change cannot be calculated solely from observed changes in surface elevation, but that near-surface densification must also be considered. However, predicting spatial and temporal variations in densification may not be straightforward. Further, the development of complex firn-density profiles both masks discernible annual layers in the near-surface firn and ice stratigraphy and is likely to introduce error into radar-derived estimates of surface elevation.
William “Bill” Branch, a professor in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences and a peanut breeder with the University of Georgia, has been named to the Georgia Seed Development Professorship in Peanut Breeding and Genetics.Since joining the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences in 1978, Branch has worked to develop new peanut varieties to help with the battle against Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), a disease that was ravaging peanut fields across the Southeast.The Georgia Seed Development Professorship in Peanut Breeding and Genetics was established with support from Georgia Seed Development (GSD) to enhance the field of plant breeding, genetics, and genomics programs through professorships and research programs at the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES).Since the beginning of his career at UGA, Branch has developed more than 20 new peanut varieties with the consistent goal of increased yield and grade as well as resistance characteristics for the farmer, and better shelling characteristics and enhanced flavor and nutrition for the consumer.Early in the fight against TSWV, Branch developed the Georgia Green variety, a cross between Southern Runner and Sunbelt Runner, that helped set the peanut industry back on track. To improve upon Georgia Green, Branch released Georgia-06G, which is the predominant variety grown in Georgia today.“Peanut breeding is a long-term program that takes a lot of patience,” Branch said. “Today, we have genetic markers available to assist with peanut breeding and help speed up the process. These tools help breeders make selections based on disease resistance for new varieties.”Branch encourages the next generation to look for career opportunities in peanut breeding. “This is exactly what I wanted to do,” he said. “Individuals need to view peanut breeding as a long-term career and have patience when developing the next variety.”Branch can be found in his greenhouse crossing a future line or out in the field, tracking each variety’s growth and watching for potential issues. His ultimate goal is to help peanut farmers make a profit by providing an increased yield and grade variety leading to a higher dollar value per acre while satisfying industry and consumer demands.GSD is a nonprofit, self-supporting organization that provides economic support for the development of new varieties which provides new business opportunities that help keep agriculture as Georgia’s number one industry. It was created in 1959 by the Georgia General Assembly to lead the development of commercial plant materials in the state by promoting varieties developed and released by UGA researchers and was designated as a public, nonprofit corporation by the Georgia Legislature in 2008, allowing the organization to expand its scope.
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Among the more uncharitable things said about Rajiv Gandhi was the accusation that he was prone to believing the person he spoke to last. No such charge has been levelled against the currrent head of the Congress. A possible reason could be that no one really has the remotest idea,Among the more uncharitable things said about Rajiv Gandhi was the accusation that he was prone to believing the person he spoke to last. No such charge has been levelled against the currrent head of the Congress. A possible reason could be that no one really has the remotest idea what Sonia Gandhi actually stands for or believes.So successfully has the lady of 10 Janpath perfected the medieval art of purdah politics that it has become impossible to identify which is the real gospel and which is the gospel twice removed. Sonia, every Congress loyalist concedes, is a fantastic listener.That is a wonderful attribute, lacking in many politicians. Unfortunately that’s where it stops. No Congressman, not even those whose claim to fame lies in their ability to walk into Vincent George’s office without an appointment, has resolved this mystery.Some 11 months after she launched her political career, Sonia has not given a single interview, spoken to a TV chat show or intervened spontaneously in a debate. Rajiv at least spoke about “jitenge ya loseenge”. The real Sonia Gandhi has said nothing. She has been ghost-written from A to Z.It would be surreal, if it wasn’t real. India is confronted with a novel situation where the unquestioned leader of the largest opposition party and a possible claimant to the top political job is a complete prisoner of her speechwriters.Without them she epitomises a complete void. Worse, she is a willing captive in the hands of wordsmiths who take a ghoulish delight in getting her to repeat their media columns. No wonder consistency is not the hallmark of this Congress president. If the Pokhran tests were a scientific achievement one day, they become a national disgrace the second.advertisementIf religious tolerance is declared a sacred duty in one speech, Saraswati Vandana becomes a reprehensible ritual in the subsequent letter. It’s not a complex question of timing; it’s a simple matter of who wrote the speech of the day.Blessed with sensitive antennae, Congressmen have not been slow to grasp the meaning of speechwriter raj. Last Tuesday, the party spokesman in Delhi described Mamata Banerjee’s Trinamool Congress as the “third youth club in West Bengal after Mohun Bagan and Mohammedan Sporting”.The next day, perhaps mindful of the hurt caused to East Bengal club, West Bengal Congress Working President P.R. Dasmunshi invited Mamata to rejoin the parent party. Sonia spoke in Mizoram of Christian “priests and nuns … subjected to unspeakable atrocities” under BJP rule.She didn’t know that the man who gave shelter to the rapists in Jhabua is now the Congress candidate. She appealed last Wednesday to Sikhs to rise above the scars of 1984. Two hours later, as if to rub salt into their wounds, a beaming Sajjan Kumar was on hand to release the party’s Delhi manifesto.It’s not that Sonia doesn’t know. It’s just that Congressmen are convinced she is incapable of going beyond the script. Hence the uncontrolled explosion of personal agendas. Sonia has been praised for her maturity, for steering a pathologically promiscuous party toward brahmacharya.If the Congress wins the assembly elections, the enforced celibacy will end. Jyoti Basu may declare her Nehru’s worthy successor and help reinstate her in a Race Course Road house vacated nine years ago.On paper Sonia will reign, but who will rule? The wordsmiths are drooling at the idea. It will be dynasty of course, but it will also be regency. Till she effects her elusive discovery of India.
Update: I assumed that eight or nine Pac-12 schools were for satellite camps. As it turns out, it was 11, with the assumed dissident being UCLA, according to Stewart Mandel. You can’t make this up.Larry Scott confirmed that 11 of the 12 Pac-12 schools did not support a satellite camp ban. Would not say the 12th, but, now you can guess.— Stewart Mandel (@slmandel) April 20, 2016Earlier: Two weeks ago, Washington State head coach Mike Leach said that most Pac-12 programs are for satellite camps, and that he didn’t know why the conference voted against it. According to Fox Sports’ Stewart Mandel, Pac-12 commissioner Larry Scott has an answer: UCLA athletic director Dan Guerrero voted the wrong way.New twist in satellite camp ban. Pac-12 commish Larry Scott says their rep, Dan Guerrero, “did not vote the way he was supposed to vote.”— Stewart Mandel (@slmandel) April 20, 2016It is unclear whether this was subterfuge by an athletic director whose school is in a talent rich city, or just a mistake, but it makes sense that most Pac-12 programs would want the chance to see players from other areas. While UCLA and USC have the advantage of being in Los Angeles, and Stanford has its own very unique recruiting ability, satellite camps make a ton of sense for pretty much every other program in the league.
New Delhi: Senior Congress leader and Rajasthan Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot on Saturday ruled himself out of the race for party chief. Speaking to reporters after the Congress Working Committee (CWC) meeting here, he said: “I am not among those leaders who push their names for the party president’s post. My opinion in this matter is known to all.” The CWC will meet in the evening again for another round of consultation on the election of the new Congress president, Gehlot said.
MONTREAL – The skies over the world’s largest aerospace market have opened to Bombardier’s C Series aircraft after it won a resounding victory Friday against Boeing Co.U.S. International Trade Commissioners voted 4-0 that Boeing didn’t suffer harm from prospective imports of C Series planes.Boeing launched the trade case last April, arguing that governments in Canada and Britain subsidized the plane’s development and allowed Bombardier to sell it at unfairly low prices.The decision eliminates nearly 300 per cent in duties imposed by the Department of Commerce.“Today’s decision is a victory for innovation, competition, and the rule of law,” the Montreal-based manufacturer said in a news release moments after the vote was announced.The decision was a surprise to many observers who expected the commission would side with Boeing even though they believed the company sustained no harm. Even one government official said Ottawa wouldn’t be surprised by a loss.Several commentators said the ruling restores the commission’s credibility because it wasn’t moved by political calculations or pressure from President Donald Trump’s protectionist rhetoric.The decision caused Bombardier’s stock to shoot up to its highest level in three years. Shares gained more than 15 per cent after the ruling, closing at $3.54.Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland welcomed the decision.“Canada-United States trade is important to the prosperity of both our countries. This decision will support well-paying middle-class jobs on both sides of the border,” she said in a statement.Chicago-based Boeing said it is disappointed by the decision but will review the commission’s detailed opinions when they are released in the coming days.“We are disappointed that the International Trade Commission did not recognize the harm that Boeing has suffered from the billions of dollars in illegal government subsidies that the Department of Commerce found Bombardier received and used to dump aircraft in the U.S. small single-aisle airplane market,” it said in a statement.Boeing said it will continue to document any harm to Boeing from illegal subsidies and dumping pricing.“We will not stand by as Bombardier’s illegal business practices continue to harm American workers and the aerospace industry they support. Global trade only works if everyone adheres to the rules we have all agreed to. That’s a belief we will continue to defend.”Boeing could appeal or launch a new petition if the C Series are delivered to the U.S. from the Quebec assembly plant, but observers say that would be a mistake.“I think it’s cost them too much in terms of reputation and actually in terms of defence orders for them to appeal,” said Ernie Arvai, a partner at U.S. commercial aviation consultancy AirInsight.Canada’s largest private-sector union responded to the ruling by calling on Bombardier to abandon its plans to build a second assembly line in the southern United States.“Common sense should now trump because there’s absolutely no reason now for the C Series to satisfy the U.S. market be built in Mobile, Ala,” Unifor president Jerry Dias told reporters.“Today is a huge victory for one of Canada’s most important industries and as a Bombardier employee I’m absolutely thrilled and dumbfounded that this decision actually came down.”Bombardier spokesman Simon Letendre said the company and Airbus will proceed with the construction of the second assembly line for the U.S. market.McGill University professor Karl Moore said building the plant is the right move.He expects the orders will flow into Bombardier now that the uncertainty of duties is resolved.“The U.S. is wide open to sell a lot of C Series,” he added.But Richard Aboulafia of the Teal Group said he doesn’t believe the ruling will unleash a torrent of orders because so few American airlines ordered the C Series even though it has been available to purchase for a decade.“You could make an argument that the combination of Airbus ownership and the end of this trade complaint might serve as a catalyst but I’m not aware of a whole lot of outstanding U.S. requirements for a plane of this class.”Delta Air Lines Inc. said it looks forward to introducing the CS100 to its fleet. The airline ordered 75 CS100s that were slated to be delivered starting this fall from Mirabel, Que. It has vowed to wait until the new assembly line is built.“Delta is pleased by the U.S. International Trade Commission’s ruling rejecting Boeing’s anti-competitive attempt to deny U.S. airlines and the U.S. travelling public access to the state-of-the-art 110-seat CS100 aircraft when Boeing offers no viable alternative,” it said in a news release.Companies in this story: (TSX:BBD.B)Follow @RossMarowits on Twitter.Note to readers: This is a corrected story. A previous version said Unifor is Canada’s biggest union.
To VOTE for Tumbler Ridge; CLICK HERE TUMBLER RIDGE, B.C. – Participating against Flin Flon, MB in an online voting contest to determine who has the best recreational snowmobile trails in Canada, voting deadline is Sunday, January 20th at midnight.Tumbler Ridge needs your daily vote to maintain their position in the lead for the ultimate bragging rights. They are now in the finals after 6 rounds and months of head to head matches. They are vying for the top position as it’s down to Fin Flon and them.The winning location will receive a lot of exposure, the SledTown Showdown 2019 Championship Trophy, front-page coverage with a cover story on all 30,000 copies of SnoRiders Magazine. The winner also receives multiple articles online and in the SnoRiders e-newsletters highlighting the destination.Tumbler Ridge needs your votes to win SledTown ShowDown to show Canada they have the best snowmobile trails!
Celebrated author Arundhati Roy’s new book ‘Ek Tha Doctor Ek Tha Sant’ was launched on April 5, at the Constitution Club, by a noted panel of writers, journalists and activists including Urmilesh Urmi, Dilip Mandal, Rajendra Pal Gautam, Anita Bharti, Manisha Bangar, Sunil Sardar and Anil Yadav. This book is a translation of The Doctor and the Saint: Caste, Race, and Annihilation of Caste – The Debate Between B R Ambedkar and M K Gandhi, written by Arundhati Roy. The Hindi book was translated by Ratan Lal and Anil Yadav ‘Jai Hind’. Also Read – An income drop can harm brainTalking about the book, Roy insists readers must examine both the political development and influence of M K Gandhi, and also why B R Ambedkar’s brilliant challenge to his near-divine status was suppressed by India’s elite. In Roy’s analysis, we see that Ambedkar’s fight for justice was systematically sidelined in favor of policies that reinforced caste, resulting in the current nation of India: independent of British rule, globally powerful, and marked to this day by the caste system. Also Read – Shallu Jindal honoured with Mahatma AwardBoth Ambedkar and Gandhi were their generation’s emissaries of a profound social, political and philosophical conflict that had begun long ago and has still by no means ended. The debate between Ambedkar and Gandhi is not new but the book gave a perspective to the difference. The panel discussed Ambedkar’s arguments in their vital historical context— namely, as an extended public political debate with Mohandas Gandhi. They also discussed some uncomfortable, controversial, and even surprising truths about the political thought and career of India’s most famous and most revered figure.
Kolkata: The Wildlife Wing of the state Forest department seized 20 birds of three scheduled species of parakeets from Galif Street on Sunday.No one could be arrested as offenders probably had sensed danger and abandoned the cages full of birds to save themselves. According to sources, acting on a sources information sleuths from Forest department conducted a special raid on Sunday morning at Galif Street. Forest department officials posed as prospected buyers of pets and was taking a round of the pet market for possible catch. After almost an hours, some of them noticed few cages covered with pieces of cloth which were abandoned. Suspecting something fishy, sleuths started keeping strong vigil on the cages. But after waiting for a long time no one came to pick up those cages. Also Read – Bengal family worships Muslim girl as Goddess Durga in Kumari PujaLater, forest officials removed the cloth pieces and found three species of birds identified as rose ringed parakeets, alexandrine parakeets and grey headed starling. Immediately, the birds were seized and it was found there are 20 birds from the schedule of forest department regulations which are banned for trade. Later, the birds were taken to the wild life rehabilitation centre in Salt Lake. A case has been lodged. A forest officials said they are continuously trying to inform people not to buy any scheduled birds as it is illegal. The aim is to save and conserve wildlife by awareness of common people. Earlier this month, state Forest department and Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) jointly carried out a raid at Galif Street, after the officials got a tip off that several endangered species of birds were being sold by a few persons. A large number of birds were recovered during the raid and nine persons are arrested by the officials of forest department and WCCB.