The Children Never Had Covid. So Why Did They Have Coronavirus Antibodies?

first_imgThen why do we have a pandemic? Shouldn’t most of us be protected by memory cells left by other coronavirus infections? – Advertisement – Now the researchers are planning to expand their study to monitor thousands of children and adults. Some have antibodies that can block the new coronavirus in lab tests. Others do not.“If they have the pandemic strain, are they protected?” Dr. Kassiotis asked. Will they get sick, he wondered, or will the infection be all but undetectable?Dr. Elledge and his colleagues at Harvard developed their own highly specific, sensitive and exhaustive antibody test, VirScan. It is able to detect a diverse collection of antibodies with that are directed at any of more than 800 places on the new coronavirus, including the antibody that Dr. Kassiotis and his colleagues studied.After examining blood taken from 190 people before the pandemic emerged, Dr. Elledge and his colleagues concluded that many already had antibodies, including the one targeting the base of the spike — presumably from infections with related coronaviruses that cause colds.But while adults might get one or two colds a year, Dr. Elledge said, children may get up to a dozen. As a result, many develop floods of coronavirus antibodies that are present almost continuously; they may lessen cold symptoms, or even leave children with colds that are symptomless but still infectious.While adults may not have detectable coronavirus antibodies, many may be able to quickly make antibodies if they are infected with a coronavirus.In typical viral infections, the immune system pours out antibodies to fight the virus. When the infection is quelled, the antibodies, no longer needed, diminish in number. But the body is left with so-called memory cells that allow antibody production to soar rapidly if the virus tries to invade again. The Coronavirus Outbreak ›Words to Know About TestingConfused by the terms about coronavirus testing? Let us help: In a study published Friday in Science, the group, led by George Kassiotis, who heads the Retroviral Immunology Laboratory at the institute, reports that on average only 5 percent of adults had these antibodies, but 43 percent of children did.Researchers who did not participate in the study were intrigued by the finding. H. Benjamin Larman, an immunologist at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, called it a “well-done study that puts forward a compelling theory which is supported by their data.” While the tip of the spike is unique to the new coronavirus, the base is found in all coronaviruses, Dr. Kassiotis said. In lab tests, antibodies to the base of the spike prevented the new coronavirus from entering cells in order to reproduce. Stephen J. Elledge, a genetics professor at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, had a similar response. He and others have found many people have antibodies to common colds caused by other coronaviruses; in laboratory studies, these antibodies also block the new coronavirus.- Advertisement –center_img In March, as the pandemic was just beginning, Dr. Kassiotis and his colleagues decided to develop a highly sensitive antibody test. To assess it, they examined blood samples taken before the pandemic from over 300 adults and 48 children and adolescents, comparing them with samples from more than 170 people who had been infected with the new coronavirus.The scientists expected samples taken before the pandemic to have no antibodies that attacked the new coronavirus. Those were to be the controls for the test the scientists were developing.Instead, they found that many children, and some adults, carried one antibody in particular that can prevent coronaviruses, including the new one, from entering cells. This antibody attaches itself to a spike that pokes out of coronaviruses.- Advertisement – “It is quite possible that you lose your memory over time,” Dr. Elledge said. He suspects that the new coronavirus may interfere with the activation of the memory cells able to respond to the infection.An infection “might give you a hazy memory that fades over time,” he said. If so, a very recent infection with a common cold coronavirus would be needed to protect against the new coronavirus, and even then the protection might last only for a limited time.The new coronavirus would have hobbled the production of antibodies that specifically attack it. That might explain why children, with their seemingly continuous colds, are much better off than adults.Dr. Elledge said that if he is right about the loss of memory cells, that bodes well for vaccines. A vaccine boosts antibody production without the presence of a virus. So the virus “is not in the background, messing up memory cell formation,” he said.Another possibility is that most adults actually are protected by memory cells from previous infections with the common cold. Although few have enough antibodies in their blood to protect them at any given time, they may be able to quickly make antibodies to lessen the impact of the new coronavirus.That might explain why many adults who are infected recover quickly.“We focus on those who get really sick, but 95 to 98 percent of those who get the virus don’t have to go to the hospital,” Dr. Elledge said. “There are a lot of people who do get better.” Antibody: A protein produced by the immune system that can recognize and attach precisely to specific kinds of viruses, bacteria, or other invaders.Antibody test/serology test: A test that detects antibodies specific to the coronavirus. Antibodies begin to appear in the blood about a week after the coronavirus has infected the body. Because antibodies take so long to develop, an antibody test can’t reliably diagnose an ongoing infection. But it can identify people who have been exposed to the coronavirus in the past.Antigen test: This test detects bits of coronavirus proteins called antigens. Antigen tests are fast, taking as little as five minutes, but are less accurate than tests that detect genetic material from the virus.Coronavirus: Any virus that belongs to the Orthocoronavirinae family of viruses. The coronavirus that causes Covid-19 is known as SARS-CoV-2. Covid-19: The disease caused by the new coronavirus. The name is short for coronavirus disease 2019.Isolation and quarantine: Isolation is the separation of people who know they are sick with a contagious disease from those who are not sick. Quarantine refers to restricting the movement of people who have been exposed to a virus.Nasopharyngeal swab: A long, flexible stick, tipped with a soft swab, that is inserted deep into the nose to get samples from the space where the nasal cavity meets the throat. Samples for coronavirus tests can also be collected with swabs that do not go as deep into the nose — sometimes called nasal swabs — or oral or throat swabs.Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Scientists use PCR to make millions of copies of genetic material in a sample. Tests that use PCR enable researchers to detect the coronavirus even when it is scarce.Viral load: The amount of virus in a person’s body. In people infected by the coronavirus, the viral load may peak before they start to show symptoms, if symptoms appear at all. That happened to Dr. Larman and his family of five. Four of them got sick with Covid-19, the illness caused by the new coronavirus, in July. None were seriously ill, and his 4-year-old son was spared altogether.“My son was not isolated from us and therefore heavily exposed,” Dr. Larman said. “He tested negative twice, and so we certainly suspect that he had some form of pre-existing immunity.” It’s been a big puzzle of the pandemic: Why are children so much less likely than adults to become infected with the new coronavirus and, if infected, less likely to become ill?A possible reason may be that many children already have antibodies to other coronaviruses, according to researchers at the Francis Crick Institute in London. About one in five of the colds that plague children are caused by viruses in this family. Antibodies to those viruses may also block SARS-CoV-2, the new coronavirus causing the pandemic.- Advertisement –last_img read more

UK Govt approves close contract training

first_img Loading… United Kingdom government has approved close contact training for football clubs. Promoted ContentThe Very Last Bitcoin Will Be Mined Around 2140. Read MoreWho Is The Most Powerful Woman On Earth?The 10 Best Secondary Education Systems In The WorldCan Playing Too Many Video Games Hurt Your Body?7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend BetterWhich Country Is The Most Romantic In The World?6 Ridiculous Health Myths That Are Actually True13 kids at weddings who just don’t give a hootCouples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable WayWho Earns More Than Ronaldo?This Guy Photoshopped Himself Into Celeb Pics And It’s HystericalBirds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For Them The guidelines clarify that: “Stage Two training can be described as the resumption of close contact (interaction within the two-meter social distancing boundary) training where pairs, small groups and/or teams will be able to interact in much closer contact (e.g. close quarters coaching, combat sports sparring, teams sports tackling, technical equipment sharing, etc).” Sports minister Nigel Huddleston said: “This new guidance marks the latest phase of a carefully phased return to training process for elite athletes, designed to limit the risk of injury and protect the health and safety of all involved. “We are absolutely clear that individual sports must review whether they have the appropriate carefully controlled medical conditions in place before they can proceed, and secure the confidence of athletes, coaches, and support staff. read also:UK government issues guidance on safe sports training “Given the wide-ranging input we have received from medical experts, we believe these pragmatic measures should provide further reassurance that a safe, competitive training environment can be delivered, as we work towards a restart of professional sport behind closed doors when it is safe to do so.” FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Phase two guidance has now been issued to teams regarding the way players can interact and train. These sports teams, including those in the Premier League, would be allowed to resume matches when the protocol reaches phase three. That is expected sometime in June.Advertisementlast_img read more

Women’s basketball can’t overcome Cal

first_imgThe women’s basketball team’s season ended on Thursday morning, as they lost 71-58 to Cal in the first round of the Pac-12 Tournament at the KeyArena in Seattle. Cal forward Kristine Anigwe was the x-factor in a tightly contested game. She scored 34 points with 13 rebounds, dropping 11 points in the final quarter. “Just a hard-fought game for 40 minutes,” head coach Cynthia Cooper-Dyke said. “Kristine [Anigwe] was tough to stop. I thought Cal made crucial baskets in the important moments of the game, and we couldn’t necessarily get the stops we needed.”Before Anigwe’s impressive fourth quarter shifted the game’s momentum, USC was neck and neck with Cal. They led by 1 point after the first quarter and trailed 30-28 at halftime.“We missed some defensive assignments when we were supposed to trap [Anigwe],” Cooper-Dyke said. “Then we allowed her to get too deep in the paint, whereas before we were very physical with her. There were some early fouls called that I thought made us tentative defensively against Kristine. And it was tough to stop her once she got into an offensive rhythm.”Junior forward Kristen Simon came back strongly after playing only 11 minutes against Arizona due to injury. On Thursday, she played 22 minutes, scoring 17 points on an efficient 8-of-14 shooting. While Simon produced a solid outing for her team, the 3-point shooting struggles that plagued the Trojans against Arizona State and Arizona continued. USC shot under 30 percent from long range for the third game in a row, this time going 3-of-14. Over the last three games, senior sharpshooter Courtney Jaco has shot a surprising 4-of-18 from long distance. She is the second all-time 3-point scorer in school history. After trading blows in the first half, Cal went on a quick 7-0 run to start the third quarter. The Bears led by as many as nine in the third frame, but a few scores by freshman guard Minyon Moore lessened the deficit. She finished 10 points and 5 rebounds. “We knew we had to attack their pressure,” Jaco said. “And once we did that and drew the help, we could pass it easily to the open player, but I think we just didn’t have that mindset for 40 minutes.”Entering the fourth quarter, the Trojans were down by just 3 points and within striking distance of the second round of the Pac-12 Tournament. However, they ran into a string of dominance by Anigwe and were unable to slow her down. She started off the quarter by scoring her team’s next 9 points, all on jump shots.By the end of her scoring rampage, the Bears led by five and the Trojans were unable to mount one more comeback with such little time left. “I’m very proud of the effort that we gave for 40 minutes,” Cooper-Dyke said. “I want to first thank our seniors. Jaco has done a fantastic job, and really all of our seniors, all year long, all four years.”For Jaco, the game was her final one on the court in a Trojan uniform. Despite the loss, she was positive in reflecting on her college basketball career.“When you get out of college basketball, you kind of miss that camaraderie and stuff like that,” Jaco said. “My teammates this year were really special. Some of them, they’ll be long-time friends, so that’s going to mean the most to me.”last_img read more