The Children Never Had Covid. So Why Did They Have Coronavirus Antibodies?

first_imgThen why do we have a pandemic? Shouldn’t most of us be protected by memory cells left by other coronavirus infections? – Advertisement – Now the researchers are planning to expand their study to monitor thousands of children and adults. Some have antibodies that can block the new coronavirus in lab tests. Others do not.“If they have the pandemic strain, are they protected?” Dr. Kassiotis asked. Will they get sick, he wondered, or will the infection be all but undetectable?Dr. Elledge and his colleagues at Harvard developed their own highly specific, sensitive and exhaustive antibody test, VirScan. It is able to detect a diverse collection of antibodies with that are directed at any of more than 800 places on the new coronavirus, including the antibody that Dr. Kassiotis and his colleagues studied.After examining blood taken from 190 people before the pandemic emerged, Dr. Elledge and his colleagues concluded that many already had antibodies, including the one targeting the base of the spike — presumably from infections with related coronaviruses that cause colds.But while adults might get one or two colds a year, Dr. Elledge said, children may get up to a dozen. As a result, many develop floods of coronavirus antibodies that are present almost continuously; they may lessen cold symptoms, or even leave children with colds that are symptomless but still infectious.While adults may not have detectable coronavirus antibodies, many may be able to quickly make antibodies if they are infected with a coronavirus.In typical viral infections, the immune system pours out antibodies to fight the virus. When the infection is quelled, the antibodies, no longer needed, diminish in number. But the body is left with so-called memory cells that allow antibody production to soar rapidly if the virus tries to invade again. The Coronavirus Outbreak ›Words to Know About TestingConfused by the terms about coronavirus testing? Let us help: In a study published Friday in Science, the group, led by George Kassiotis, who heads the Retroviral Immunology Laboratory at the institute, reports that on average only 5 percent of adults had these antibodies, but 43 percent of children did.Researchers who did not participate in the study were intrigued by the finding. H. Benjamin Larman, an immunologist at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, called it a “well-done study that puts forward a compelling theory which is supported by their data.” While the tip of the spike is unique to the new coronavirus, the base is found in all coronaviruses, Dr. Kassiotis said. In lab tests, antibodies to the base of the spike prevented the new coronavirus from entering cells in order to reproduce. Stephen J. Elledge, a genetics professor at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, had a similar response. He and others have found many people have antibodies to common colds caused by other coronaviruses; in laboratory studies, these antibodies also block the new coronavirus.- Advertisement –center_img In March, as the pandemic was just beginning, Dr. Kassiotis and his colleagues decided to develop a highly sensitive antibody test. To assess it, they examined blood samples taken before the pandemic from over 300 adults and 48 children and adolescents, comparing them with samples from more than 170 people who had been infected with the new coronavirus.The scientists expected samples taken before the pandemic to have no antibodies that attacked the new coronavirus. Those were to be the controls for the test the scientists were developing.Instead, they found that many children, and some adults, carried one antibody in particular that can prevent coronaviruses, including the new one, from entering cells. This antibody attaches itself to a spike that pokes out of coronaviruses.- Advertisement – “It is quite possible that you lose your memory over time,” Dr. Elledge said. He suspects that the new coronavirus may interfere with the activation of the memory cells able to respond to the infection.An infection “might give you a hazy memory that fades over time,” he said. If so, a very recent infection with a common cold coronavirus would be needed to protect against the new coronavirus, and even then the protection might last only for a limited time.The new coronavirus would have hobbled the production of antibodies that specifically attack it. That might explain why children, with their seemingly continuous colds, are much better off than adults.Dr. Elledge said that if he is right about the loss of memory cells, that bodes well for vaccines. A vaccine boosts antibody production without the presence of a virus. So the virus “is not in the background, messing up memory cell formation,” he said.Another possibility is that most adults actually are protected by memory cells from previous infections with the common cold. Although few have enough antibodies in their blood to protect them at any given time, they may be able to quickly make antibodies to lessen the impact of the new coronavirus.That might explain why many adults who are infected recover quickly.“We focus on those who get really sick, but 95 to 98 percent of those who get the virus don’t have to go to the hospital,” Dr. Elledge said. “There are a lot of people who do get better.” Antibody: A protein produced by the immune system that can recognize and attach precisely to specific kinds of viruses, bacteria, or other invaders.Antibody test/serology test: A test that detects antibodies specific to the coronavirus. Antibodies begin to appear in the blood about a week after the coronavirus has infected the body. Because antibodies take so long to develop, an antibody test can’t reliably diagnose an ongoing infection. But it can identify people who have been exposed to the coronavirus in the past.Antigen test: This test detects bits of coronavirus proteins called antigens. Antigen tests are fast, taking as little as five minutes, but are less accurate than tests that detect genetic material from the virus.Coronavirus: Any virus that belongs to the Orthocoronavirinae family of viruses. The coronavirus that causes Covid-19 is known as SARS-CoV-2. Covid-19: The disease caused by the new coronavirus. The name is short for coronavirus disease 2019.Isolation and quarantine: Isolation is the separation of people who know they are sick with a contagious disease from those who are not sick. Quarantine refers to restricting the movement of people who have been exposed to a virus.Nasopharyngeal swab: A long, flexible stick, tipped with a soft swab, that is inserted deep into the nose to get samples from the space where the nasal cavity meets the throat. Samples for coronavirus tests can also be collected with swabs that do not go as deep into the nose — sometimes called nasal swabs — or oral or throat swabs.Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Scientists use PCR to make millions of copies of genetic material in a sample. Tests that use PCR enable researchers to detect the coronavirus even when it is scarce.Viral load: The amount of virus in a person’s body. In people infected by the coronavirus, the viral load may peak before they start to show symptoms, if symptoms appear at all. That happened to Dr. Larman and his family of five. Four of them got sick with Covid-19, the illness caused by the new coronavirus, in July. None were seriously ill, and his 4-year-old son was spared altogether.“My son was not isolated from us and therefore heavily exposed,” Dr. Larman said. “He tested negative twice, and so we certainly suspect that he had some form of pre-existing immunity.” It’s been a big puzzle of the pandemic: Why are children so much less likely than adults to become infected with the new coronavirus and, if infected, less likely to become ill?A possible reason may be that many children already have antibodies to other coronaviruses, according to researchers at the Francis Crick Institute in London. About one in five of the colds that plague children are caused by viruses in this family. Antibodies to those viruses may also block SARS-CoV-2, the new coronavirus causing the pandemic.- Advertisement –last_img read more

Syracuse completes comeback in 2-1 win over Duke

first_img Facebook Twitter Google+ Published on October 7, 2017 at 2:59 pm Contact Matt: mdliberm@syr.edu No. 9 Syracuse (10-3, 2-3 Atlantic Coast Conference) picked up a win on the road at No. 2 Duke (9-2, 2-2) on Saturday afternoon.After dropping two of its last three, the Orange dropped to ninth in the latest polls. Saturday’s contest against the Blue Devils marked SU’s eighth straight game against a ranked opponent, of which Syracuse has won five.Duke put the pressure on early scoring just six minutes in as Rose Tynan connected on her 10th goal of the year. It was the first shot for either team. Down early, the Orange played more aggressive, outshooting Duke 5-1 over the subsequent 12 minutes.That fifth shot came from Lies Lagerweij at the 18:48 mark, but a Duke save pushed the ball back into the arc, where Jennifer Bleakney rifled it past goalkeeper Sammi Steele to tie the game at 1-1.The two sides traded blows for the next 45 minutes. With seven minutes left, SU earned a penalty corner. Laura Hurff inserted the play, and after SU’s shot was blocked, Hurff grabbed the rebound and beat Steele to take a 2-1 lead. The Orange held on in the final seven minutes.AdvertisementThis is placeholder textThis contest marked SU’s final ACC road game of the regular season and its first conference win in the last three games. The Orange takes on No. 3 Virginia and the highest scoring offense in the country next Saturday at J.S. Coyne Stadium. Commentslast_img read more

Official: Aston Villa sign Carlos Sanchez

first_imgAston Villa have completed the signing of midfielder Carlos Sanchez from Elche on a four-year deal.The Colombia international joins Paul Lambert’s side on the eve of their opening game of the Premier League season at Stoke City as they look to improve on a 15th-placed finish in 2013-14.And the 28-year-old admitted he is looking forward to plying his trade in England after seeing compatriot and former Villa striker Juan Pablo Angel succeed on his arrival in the Midlands.”I’m delighted to be here, it’s something I have always dreamed of and it is very important for me to be here at Aston Villa, not only for me but for my family as well,” he told the club’s official website.”It was always my aim to play in this country and in this league and I know Villa well as Juan Pablo also played here. I began to watch Villa games when he came in 2001. He was a goalscorer who was very important to this club and I followed his time here because he was always scoring goals.”Lambert has praised the midifielder’s eye for a tackle as he looks to add some steel to his side ahead of the new season. “He does the simple things really well and he’s excellent at spotting the danger, dealing with it and keeping it simple. His physical strength, too, is something we will benefit from in the middle of the pitch and his role will be a really important one for the team,” he said.”We’ve beaten other teams to bring him here to Villa and I’m delighted as we needed someone of his ilk to come in. He’ll be an excellent player for the club.”Sanchez started four out of five games for his country in the World Cup in Brazil and moves to Villa Park after just one season in La Liga with Elche.last_img read more

Jermain Defoe sets eyes on Premiership title

first_imgRanger manager Steven Gerrard has lauded the additions of Jermain Defoe and Steven Davis to his squad this January.Defoe is on an 18-month loan from Bournemouth, while Davis has returned to Rangers from Southampton on an initial six-month loan subject to international clearance.Defoe made his intention for the club this season known via Twitter where he tweeted: ‘Let’s bring that trophy home boss.’Gerrard who played with Defoe in the national team told Daily Mail:Steven Gerrard, Michael OwenOwen reveals why Liverpool didn’t offer Gerrard a new contract Manuel R. Medina – September 6, 2019 According to Owen, the Reds wanted to sell Gerrard two years before he left the club and that’s why they didn’t offer him a contract renewal.“He is an exceptionally talented striker and vastly experienced footballer who has scored goals at every club he has played for.“He will be a great addition to our dressing room and we look forward to integrating him into the squad whilst we work in Tenerife over the next week.”Steven Gerrard’s Rangers are hoping to lift the Scottish Premier League this season after a long period of dominance by defending Champions Celtic.last_img read more

BUSINESS BRIEF McDonalds On Track To Meet Coffee Sustainability Goal

first_img(NOTE: McDonald’s is located at 212 Main Street in Wilmington.)CHICAGO, IL — Last month, McDonald’s announced it now sustainably sources 84 percent of its McCafé coffee for U.S. restaurants – and 54 percent of all McCafé coffee worldwide – as part of its efforts to protect coffee from the adverse effects of climate change. This announcement marks significant progress from when the company first announced its goal in 2014 to sustainably source 100 percent of its coffee worldwide by 2020, with some markets having already reached that goal.The coffee crop is highly vulnerable to rising temperatures. In fact, one study showed that climate change has the potential to cut the world’s coffee-growing area in half by 2050. In March 2018, McDonald’s became the first global restaurant company in the world to address global climate change by setting a target approved by independent experts to significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions.“We know many people enjoy coffee as part of their daily routine, and, at McDonalds, we are taking meaningful steps to support farmers protecting it from climate change,” said Townsend Bailey, Director, U.S. Supply Chain Sustainability, McDonald’s. “As we continue on our journey to build a better McDonald’s, we are using our size and scale to implement significant changes that are important to our customers, our people and the environment.”Key Sourcing PartnershipsTo help protect coffee from climate change, McDonald’s has partnered with organizations – like Rainforest Alliance, Conservation International, Solidaridad, COSA, and Fair Trade – in support of the farmers in their supply chain, their communities and their land. The McDonald’s system has invested millions since 2012 to train roughly 20,000 farmers on sustainable practices ranging from reforestation to water quality so they can continue to steward their land.In 2016, McDonald’s launched its McCafé Sustainability Improvement Platform (SIP), in partnership with Conservation International. McCafé SIP is a framework guiding the coffee supply chain in sustainable sourcing, as well as an investment in coffee growers and their communities over the long term. McDonald’s is also part of Conservation International’s Sustainable Coffee Challenge, which aims to make coffee the world’s first sustainable agricultural product. United with other key industry players — retailers, roasters, producer groups, industry associations and non-governmental organizations — McDonald’s is helping make the changes needed to transform the industry.“For people to enjoy coffee in the future, we need to do our part to take care of it now,” said Raina Lang, Director, Sustainable Coffee Markets at Conservation International. “Through our partnerships with McDonald’s and across the industry with the Sustainable Coffee Challenge, the coffee sector is making strides in protecting and strengthening coffee production around the world.”Beyond coffee beans, McDonald’s USA is proud to work with US dairy farmers to source its McCafé dairy needs. By 2020, nearly all dairy products served in the U.S. will come from farms that participate in the Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM) Program, which strives to hold its members to high standards of animal care, and environmental and antibiotic stewardship.Ongoing CommitmentToday’s sustainability progress announcement for McCafé coffee is the latest update on building a better McDonald’s. Previous commitments and progress milestones include recently announcing that McDonald’s classic burgers – including the hamburger, cheeseburger, double cheeseburger, McDouble, Quarter Pounder with Cheese, double Quarter Pounder with Cheese and Big Mac – have no artificial preservatives, no artificial flavors and no added colors from artificial sources (our pickle contains an artificial preservative, so skip it if you like). Additionally, McDonald’s has also pledged to transition to cage-free eggs in US and Canada by 2025 and by the end of 2020, McDonald’s has also committed to sourcing a portion of its beef from its top 10 beef-sourcing countries from suppliers participating in sustainability programs aligned with the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef principles and criteria. For more details on McDonald’s efforts, visit our Scale for Good website.About McDonald’sMcDonald’s USA, LLC, serves a variety of menu options made with quality ingredients to nearly 25 million customers every day. Ninety-five percent of McDonald’s 14,000 U.S. restaurants are independently owned and operated by businessmen and women. For more information, visit http://www.mcdonalds.com, or follow us on Twitter @McDonalds and Facebook http://www.facebook.com/mcdonalds.(NOTE: The above press release is from McDonald’s.)Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email wilmingtonapple@gmail.com.Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedMcDonald’s Eliminates Artificial Preservatives, Artificial Flavors & Added Colors From Its 7 Classic BurgersIn “Business”McDonald’s Becomes First Restaurant Company To Set Approved Science Based Target To Reduce Greenhouse Gas EmissionsIn “Business”McDonald’s Announces Changes To Happy Meals Coming In JuneIn “Business”last_img read more

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Spotify Revamps Its Mobile App for Paying Subscribers

first_img ×Actors Reveal Their Favorite Disney PrincessesSeveral actors, like Daisy Ridley, Awkwafina, Jeff Goldblum and Gina Rodriguez, reveal their favorite Disney princesses. Rapunzel, Mulan, Ariel,Tiana, Sleeping Beauty and Jasmine all got some love from the Disney stars.More VideosVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9Next UpJennifer Lopez Shares How She Became a Mogul04:350.5x1x1.25×1.5x2xLive00:0002:1502:15 Spotify is giving its premium experience on iOS and Android a new look: The company started to roll out changes to its mobile apps with a new focus on recommendations, discovery and artist radios Thursday.The company said in a blog post that it streamlined the navigation of its mobile apps to give users quicker access to personalized recommendations. This includes paring down the options in its main menu bar from five to just three: home, search and your library.Spotify also revamped the app’s search page, which now prominently features a user’s favorite genres, as well as direct access to radio stations, playlists, podcasts and more.Finally, Spotify also introduced new endless artist radio playlists. “These offer an endless listening stream personalized to the listener’s own musical tastes,” the company said. “They’re updated regularly to keep things fresh—and what’s more, they’re even downloadable and available to play while offline.“Spotify rolled out a new user interface for its ad-supported tier on mobile earlier this year. The company has said in the past that the majority of its listening happens on mobile, and disclosed in its IPO filing earlier this year that it now makes around 50% of its ad revenue on mobile platforms. Popular on Variety last_img read more

Wanted Political Analysts for PN defeat report

first_imgBeleaguered PN Leader coy on defeat reportBeleaguered PN Leader coy on defeat report Sources have confirmed to Newsbook.com.mt that the top echelons of the PN administration are actively scouting for political analysts to carry out a post-mortem of the electoral bloodbath which the Partit Nazzjonalista has suffered at the polls last weekend. Different sources also indicated that this was not an idea born after the poll results but one which the party leadership had informally decided upon in the weeks leading up to the elections.Meanwhile, party leader Adrian Delia adopted a coy attitude on TVM’s DISSETT when he said that such a post-electoral report was not ‘required’ but that he would consider requesting its compilation. He expressed the desire to have such an analysis carried out by a wide gamut of people and not by political experts. This, he said, was down to the fact that he did not want an elitist party with just a few advising him on what was going so wrong.Delia said that if having such a report carried out was party procedure, he had nothing against it. However, he said, many were the reports which simply gathered dust in drawers after completion. The PN statute does not, in effect, require such a report to be compiled. Delia said that the report must however, embrace as wide a spectrum of society as possible to see where whom and how these different sectors felt that the PN was not their choice representative.Read Also: Il-PN se jitlob rapport tat-telfa?Admitting to insufficient change in the Party, Delia insisted that he had been given a task to do over a five-year period and that he was there to see it through. He said that he was aware that elements within the party were not sympathetic or even hostile. Delia said that he would do all in his power to draw these elements back into the fold but if they still resisted, he would proceed regardless “…otherwise we will get stuck”.Read Also: Watch: ‘I will not be resigning’ – DeliaAt Naxxar, Delia insisted that he would not resign while prominent PN leaning economist and statistician Lawrence Zammit was one of the first to express the opinion, on Newsbook.com.mt, that Delia should resign. This call was followed by one made by former PN Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi saying that Delia should put his position up for public scrutiny. Former PN leadership candidate and party treasurer Alex Perici Calascione, as well as former PN candidate Herman Farrugia also weighed in on this aspect.Read Also :      Perici Calascione stirs a hornet’s nest            Delia should Resign – Lawrence ZammitWhatsApp <a href=’http://revive.newsbook.com.mt/www/delivery/ck.php?n=ab2c8853&amp;cb={random}’ target=’_blank’><img src=’https://revive.newsbook.com.mt/www/delivery/avw.php?zoneid=97&amp;cb={random}&amp;n=ab2c8853&amp;ct0={clickurl_enc}’ border=’0′ alt=” /></a> SharePrintlast_img read more