Top five fullbacks in the NRL

first_img5 Matt Moylan2016 stats: 4 tries, 21 try assists, 5 line breaks, 53 tackle breaks, 114 metres per gameThe 2016 season saw the complete arrival of prodigious talent Matt Moylan, who captained Penrith to a sixth-placed finish, played all three games for NSW in State of Origin and also made his international debut for Australia in a 54-12 rout of Scotland. His 21 try assists in the NRL Telstra Premiership was easily the most for a fullback, and was also third highest across the whole competition with only Johnathan Thurston and Cooper Cronk setting up more four-pointers. Moylan’s speed, footwork and ability to ball-play makes him the complete package.4 Billy Slater2016 stats: Was injured in Round 1There is no question that Billy Slater is one of the greatest fullbacks the game has ever seen, but he has only managed eight games in the last two seasons (just one in 2016) due to injury. There are hopes he’ll be right to go for the Storm in 2017 from Round 1, with Cameron Munster set to shift to five-eighth. Slater is the best organisational fullback in rugby league and will be looking to make amends for a couple of lost seasons. At full flight, there isn’t a better fullback in the world. We hope he returns to his best in 2017.3 Greg Inglis2016 stats: 5 tries, 7 try assists, 11 line breaks, 71 tackle breaks, 144 metres per gameOne of the modern greats of rugby league, Greg Inglis had a frustrating season in 2016 at club level. It was a different story in the representative scene, where he dominated for Queensland and Australia. Despite an underwhelming campaign for the Rabbitohs, he still ran for a massive 2,882 metres to rank second among fullbacks behind Darius Boyd. Inglis’s famed fend and physical presence allowed him to rack up 71 tackle breaks and he’ll be hoping for a much better season next year.2 James Tedesco2016 stats: 14 tries, 12 try assists, 15 line breaks, 106 tackle breaks, 135 metres per gameThe most electric ball-runner on this list, Tedesco is a force of nature when he gets into open space. Incredibly fast, Tedesco’s violent running style and evasiveness led to a whopping 106 tackle breaks and 14 tries last season, while he also had the ball-playing ability to create a dozen try assists. He is at the heart of everything the Wests Tigers do, and also earned his State of Origin debut in 2016. He’ll be hoping to fight off challenges from Matt Moylan and Jarryd Hayne to make the NSW No.1 jersey his own for years to come. 1 Darius Boyd2016 stats: 9 tries, 15 try assists, 9 line breaks, 62 tackle breaks, 124 metres per gameDarius Boyd had never started at fullback for Queensland until 2016, but the prolific Maroons and Broncos custodian made the role his own and then starred for the Kangaroos in a dominant Four Nations tournament. One of the best ball-playing fullbacks in the NRL, Boyd rarely makes a mistake when he sweeps into the backline. Absolutely rock solid at the back, Boyd’s game has evolved and he has really become a general organising his defence. He’s been a great player for a long time, but now Boyd is the undisputed best fullback in the game.last_img read more

Algeria FF to Help LFA in Ebola Fight

first_imgThe President of the Algerian Football Federation (AFF), Mr. Mohammed Raouraoua will provide medical assistance to the Liberia Football Association (LFA) in the fight against the Ebola outbreak in the country.Mr. Raouraoua also told LFA secretary general B. Alphonso Armah that he would talk with friends in the Arab Football Union for assistance to the Liberia Football Association.Mr. Armah said Mr. Raouraou statement is in response to a recent appeal by LFA President Musa Bility to the Algerian Football Federation for support to fight the deadly Ebola virus.Armah said the Algerian FA boss confirmed his support to the LFA’s fight of the Ebola at their last weekend’s CAF meeting in Addis Ababa, where President Bility could not attend due to the Ebola crisis in the country.On his participation at the meeting, Armah said Liberian delegation received a warm welcome by CAF President Issa Hayatou, the executive committee members and the delegates.Armah said aware of the stigmatization that goes along with the Ebola outbreak that affects citizens of countries where there has been an Ebola outbreak, he and his colleague, Andy Quamie had planned to avoid shaking hands and physical contacts.“But to our utmost surprise, President Hayatou led the delegation to hug us,” Armah said.“President Hayatou told us that we didn’t buy Ebola to come to our country; it is just a disease that can breakout in any country,” Armah said. “He wished Liberia well in the fight against Ebola.”When asked whether President Hayatou would help CAF member countries affected with the virus, he was not specific, but noted, “but with the way they hugged us, I believe CAF is planning something.”Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Jikpamu Saves APM Terminators

first_imgWith the recent pain following the failure of national soccer team coaches to rescue a broken midfield to have defended their 2-0 against Togo fresh on their minds, coaches of the Terminators FC of APM Terminals, George Paintsil and Abraham Cooper (Nyonkon), when faced with a similar situation, reintroduced an effective strategy in the midfield that ensured they won 3-1 against Caucus Inactive Organization of Chicken Soup Factory yesterday at the NPA sports field in Monrovia.Caucus’s left winger Stephen Fallah, who was strategically placed on the right wing, after several attempts, secured the opener with a grounder after the water-logged field misdirected a pass midway in the second half. Though the Terminators FC had better ball control and pushed their visitors around, it was Caucus that had the better side, leading 1-0 before the end of the first half.Realizing what was amiss, George Jikpamu came in from the bench to change the face of the game, and it was a reminiscence of what did not happen against Togo, a week ago.While both coaches and ex NPA goal hunter Armah Baxter cried that their midfield had broken, Jikpamu, with energy and speed, came in with the greatest upset.“George is a hard runner with enough stamina,” admitted coach Paintsil, at the end of the match after his timely substitution paid off.The skillful Jikpamu, once trained with Jubilee FC, and had a friendly stint in Freetown, Sierra Leone, had the game wrapped up when he made use of two chances that came his way. They were similar to the chances that international striker Francis Doe fumbled repeatedly against Togo on June 5.Caucus’s Fallah, who became a thorn in the flesh of APM Terminators, was substituted when he was brought down in one of his ceaseless runs into the opponent’s goal area; and that ended his game.With Fallah out of the way, APM Terminators began a non-stop action with substitute Jikpamu, Caucus’s tormentor–in-chief – every ball he handled caused Caucus’ coach Jonathan Ramble Sr. additional headache.And like the tragedy of the Lone Star coaches against Togo, Ramble could not initiate any effective strategy to prevent APM’s hungry strikers, led by Jikpamu to halt their onslaught.So when defender Koffa Mwah’s powerful shot gave his side one to even the scores, it was Jikpamu’s turn to teach the visitors how goals are scored.Jikpamus cleverly connected a goal to add his side’s goals to 2-1; and while against the run of play, he exposed the defensive weakness of Caucus, and pumped his second goal to win the friendly match that boosted his side’s morale.With Jikpamu’s ability to hit the back of the net with precision when he was between defenders, many said he could be a player to watch because he demonstrated he has an impressive future in soccer.It was learned that Jikpamu is among a large army of young footballers who have decided to focus their attention on other fields due to the unattractiveness of what they could earn from local football.“I am thinking about my soccer future,” Jikpamu told the Daily Observer at the end of the match, “I love the game.” And that leaves the door open for interested coaches to check on this exceptional player who many of his teammates told the Daily Observer could be a star in the making.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Globetrotters dribbling into Dawson Creek

first_imgTickets range from $27 to $82 and can be purchased through the Encana Events Centre’s official website or by calling the Tiger Box Office Plus, Dawson Co-op High Performance Ticket Outlet at 1-877-339-TIXX (8499).Tickets go on sale Monday, October 22. This Globetrotter’s world tour, “You Write the Rules”, will include fan participation like never before, as for the first time ever, fans will decide the rules of the game before it takes place, which could affect the game’s final outcome.Fans will have the opportunity to vote on their favourite, craziest rule on the team’s official website, then get to witness that rule implemented into the live show.Along with the entertaining show, fans will also be privilege to some unique opportunities in the pre, and post game shows.- Advertisement -Prior to the start of the game, fans will have the ability to participate in a once-in-a-lifetime experience with the purchase of a “Magic Pass”, allowing them to spend time shooting around and learning some new tricks on the court with the actual Globetrotters.Fans will also have the opportunity to meet the team following the game, as they will remain on the hardwood to talk to the fans and sign autographs.This year, the Globetrotters’ roster will feature stars such as Dizzy Grant, Handles Franklin, Hi-Lite Bruton and female sensation Mighty Mitchell.Advertisementlast_img read more

This Liverpool XI with Alisson, Keita and other signings to win Premier League?

first_img Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won 6 6 Klopp’s superb 4-3-3 system gets the best out of his players, with the full-backs allowed to push up, and all the attacking players offered unlimited creative freedom in the final third.But how could Liverpool look next season with the already confirmed signings, and other reported arrivals?Scroll down to find out… Top nine Premier League free transfers of the decade England’s most successful clubs of the past decade, according to trophies won 6 A mock-up of Liverpool’s 2018/19 line-up ATTACK: Mohamed Salah, Roberto Firmino, Sadio Mane Once Virgil van Dijk arrived at Liverpool from Southampton in January, the Reds’ defence developed into one of the best in the Premier League. There have been no indications Klopp wants to replace any his current first-choice back four, and even the rotation options – Joe Gomez, Joel Matip and Ragnar Klavan – are largely acceptable.The only position that really needs to be looked at this summer is left-back, with Albert Moreno the only back-up to Andy Robertson. Robertson is a guaranteed starter, but Moreno needs to be replaced with a more suitable player in case the Scotland international faces an extended spell on the sidelines through injury or faces a loss of form. 6 Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury RANKED Latest Liverpool news How Liverpool could line up at Leicester with midfielder set for lengthy absence smart causal How the Premier League table could change after the Boxing Day fixtures Liverpool’s starting line-up from their 3-0 defeat of Manchester City in April REVEALED REVEALED DEFENCE: Trent Alexander-Arnold, Dejan Lovren, Virgil van Dijk, Andy Robertson Liverpool will start the season with Alisson as their new No1, now that the Brazil star has been confirmed as the Reds’ latest signing of the summer. Loris Karius and Simon Mignolet needed replacing due to their error-prone performances, and Liverpool can now finally call upon a reliable keeper for the first time since Pepe Reina left Merseyside in 2013. Like their defence, Liverpool’s front three does not need touching this summer. When on form, Salah, Firmino and Mane combine to create perhaps the best attacking trio in the country – maybe even in Europe – and the only worry for Klopp is if the biggest clubs on the continent come calling; Salah and Mane have already been linked with potential moves to Real Madrid.Nonetheless, Klopp has work to do improving the depth of his squad in terms of attacking options, having only been able to call upon the likes of Danny Ings and Dominic Solanke off the bench last season.The previously mentioned Dybala can provide cover in any of the attacking positions if required, while Klopp has also been linked with moves for Malcom, the Bordeaux winger, Aston Villa’s Jack Grealish, and Hakim Ziyech of Ajax. Even last summer, it was clear Liverpool’s midfield was the one area which needed improving, and that is why Klopp moved to sign Naby Keita from RB Leipzig. With Keita arriving at Anfield this year, many expected Klopp to be happy with his options in the centre of the park, and everyone was surprised when Fabinho was confirmed as a Liverpool player just days after the Champions League final.The incoming duo should be guaranteed starters on Merseyside – Fabinho as the holding player, Keita as the box-to-box option – with club captain Jordan Henderson mirroring Keita on the opposite side of the midfield triumvirate. This trio will ensure Liverpool possess perhaps the most energetic midfield in the entire Premier League, though there will be questions asked about the lack of creativity – even if Keita is technically excellent and has a pretty good goal record.Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain provided both energy and creativity in the final midfield position last season, but he is set to miss nearly the entire 2018/19 campaign due to an injury he picked up towards the end of last season. The Reds have made various moves to replace Oxlade-Chamberlain in this attacking role throughout the summer, with Nabil Fekir all but confirmed as a Liverpool player before his transfer from Lyons collapsed. There is a chance talks could reopen now the World Cup is over, and Klopp will want to finally get his man after all the confusion over Fekir earlier this year. silverware MIDFIELD: Naby Keita, Fabinho, Jordan Henderson 6 gameday cracker predicted Premier League Team of the Season so far, including Liverpool and Leicester stars possible standings 6 Liverpool have finally completed the signing of Alisson from Roma for a world-record fee for a goalkeeper.The Brazil international was officially announced as the Reds’ latest signing on July 19, taking Liverpool’s summer spending past the £150m mark.Loris Karius and Simon Mignolet have done little to cover themselves in glory on Merseyside, and bringing Alisson to Anfield ensures Liverpool have captured one of the best glovesman in all of Europe.It is another brilliant signing for Liverpool, who have been moving quickly to strengthen their squad ahead of the new Premier League season.Jurgen Klopp and his staff wrapped up the signing of Fabinho, the midfielder, from Monaco just days after the club’s defeat to Real Madrid in the Champions League final.Fabinho joins Naby Keita, bought last year from RB Leipzig, at Anfield, with the pair currently in pre-season training with the Reds.It is clear Klopp is trying to fix the weaknesses that exist in his already brilliant squad as he plots Liverpool’s route to silverware after a number of near misses since he was named manager of the Anfield club. huge blow GOALKEEPER: Alisson Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? shining Every current Premier League club’s best kit from the past decade Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORTlast_img read more

Rodgers will be ‘seething’ at Celtic’s summer transfer business, talkSPORT told

first_img fear NO MOR 2 Rodgers failed to strengthen Celtic’s squad as he wished Rangers finally get their man as Liverpool agree to £7m sale Most read in Scottish football scrap Karamoko Dembele ‘chooses’ who he will play for internationally Losing Dembele to Lyon was a huge blow for Celtic A replacement striker was not signed with the only deadline day arrivals were midfielder Youssouf Mulumbu and defender Filip Benkovic, meaning Rodgers didn’t to spend any of the £19.75million made on the sale of Dembele.He is sure to be angry about this situation, according to Hartson, who believes Rodgers will be looking to invest the Dembele money back into his squad when the transfer window reopens in January.“He’ll be quietly seething at the fact he’s not been able to add some quality in the window,” Hartson told talkSPORT. “So come January, Celtic are going to go again. Brendan Rodgers will be ‘seething’ at Celtic’s summer transfer business, according to former Hoops forward John Hartson.Heading into the final days of the transfer window Celtic had endured a tough summer, but they had managed to hold on to their key players. Rangers won’t be forced to sell star striker in January, Ibrox chief claims McCoist tells funny Rangers story about Gazza and new Napoli boss Gattuso ALMOST WAT ABOUT THAT Rangers team up with hummel UK to launch eco-friendly ZEROH2O kit ‘IT’S ON’ kent bound LANGUAGE BARRIER ‘I think it’s careless’ – Gerrard takes aim at Scotland for Jack injury 2 The signings made by Rodgers were hardly inspiring, with Scott Bain and Odsonne Edouard arriving at Parkhead after spending last season on loan with Celtic, while Emilio Izaguirre joined the club a year after leaving at the end of his contract and loan signing Daniel Arzani, from Manchester City, is unproven.However, when it became clear Moussa Dembele was looking to leave Glasgow for his homeland, then finally secured a deadline day move to Lyon, the public reaction was widely critical. Vinnie Jones: What I would have done to Scott Brown after Old Firm wind-up antics Gerrard launches furious touchline outburst as horror tackle on Barisic sparks chaos decision I told Rangers to beat Spurs to Luka Modric signing, reveals Ally McCoist “Brendan will be saying to his board, ‘I want some of this £19.75million and I want to invest it in the team’.“So they’re only going to get stronger.” NOT HAPPY last_img read more

VICTORY FOR FRANK! WHEELCHAIR-USER HAS DISABILITY ALLOWANCE REINSTATED

first_imgDisabled Letterkenny man Frank Larkin has had his disability allowance reinstated.Wheelchair-user Frank had his €188 weekly allowance suspended because he could not sign on for his payment at his local post office.Frank, 41, found the three disabled parking bays close to the post office on Main Street busy – some with illegally parked cars. He drove around the town several times before deciding not to sign on in April.Frank, of Long Lane, continued to sign on and receive his cash but received a letter on Monday morning from the Department of Social Protection telling him his allowance was being suspended.The letter informed him he had to put his reasons in writing why he did not sign on for his allowance.This morning Frank told Donegal Daily that he had since been contacted by the Disability Allowance office apologising for the incident and lifting the payment suspension. Frank said “They have contacted me and told me my allowance would not be suspended.“They said they were only following procedure and asked me if I could nominate someone to collect my allowance when I cannot collect it.“I’m glad it has been sorted because what they did was simply unfair,” he said.Frank, who has just completed his Higher Diploma in Disability Studies, said he will continue to highlight the problem of people parking illegally in disabled parking bays.  VICTORY FOR FRANK! WHEELCHAIR-USER HAS DISABILITY ALLOWANCE REINSTATED was last modified: May 22nd, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Department of Social and Family Protectiondisability allowanceFrank Larkinsuspendedlast_img read more

South Africa is ready for investment, says Ramathlodi

first_img10 February 2015South Africa’s government is committed to expanding its mining industry, Mineral Resources Minister Ngoako Ramatlhodi told the African Mining Indaba in Cape Town on Tuesday.“South Africa is ready for investment,” Ramathlodi told the conference. “We are leaving no stone unturned in providing a stable environment for investment.”South Africa is the world’s largest producer of platinum and the seventh largest producer of coal.After his address to the conference, attended by 7 000 of the world’s mining executives and stakeholders, the minister joined Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies and other high-level panelists at an “investment dialogue”.Hosted by Brand South Africa, the panel focused on ways to drive competitiveness of South Africa’s mining sector.Emphasising the need to establish regulatory stability, Ramathlodi said the government was working with speed to finalise amendments to the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Bill.In January, President Jacob Zuma returned proposed changes to the 2002 Act back to the National Assembly on the grounds that they may violate the Constitution.DiversificationTrade and Industry Minister Rob Davies said diversification was key for African markets – including South Africa – if they were to achieve growth.“If we are to create a boom for mining, we must create a demand from Africa as well,” Davies said.There are “inherent competitive qualities” in the minerals chain, which South Africa must harness, he said. “We must use our minerals in a way that benefits African economies.”The government has invested heavily in developing minerals beneficiation projects, including using platinum to develop fuel cells and a project that turns mineral sands into titanium powder. “We are ready to rock and roll on this,” the minister said.Davies said a process was already under way to align charters and codes. The government would soon create the post of a commissioner to enforce Black Economic Empowerment regulations – and prevent “fronting”, where BEE points are being claimed but the processes are not implemented.EnergyThe government would also move “with speed” to tackle energy constraints currently affecting the country.Davies said he was confident that the energy war room would tackle the country’s energy problems, with maintenance of the infrastructure high on the agenda.The government was also conducting a “significant” build of energy-generating resources. Medupi power station, for example, would generate more electricty than Nigeria once it came online, Davies said.Mike Teke of the Chamber of Mines said the industry was committed to delivery – especially on the social and labour fronts. “We have seen great successes, but there is room for improvement,” he said.To solve labour issues and to avoid a repetition of the protracted and violent strikes that have crimped growth in the industry would require all parties to work together.“We all need one another – mining, regulator, trade unions, mine bosses,” Peter Bailey of the National Union of Mineworkers said. “We must do things differently . If we take hands, we all have a responsibility to ensure this industry remains a sunrise industry rather than a sunset industry.”Gideon du Plessis of the union Solidarity told the audience that “the time for mining is now”.“We must make progress,” he said. “This is a promising country. And a promising industry.”The Mining Indaba is an important event for Cape Town, bringing more than R500- million in direct revenue to the city over the past eight years, creating 4 500 direct and indirect jobs and selling 20 000 hotel nights.Follow Mining Indaba on Twitter via the hashtag #MiningIndabaSAinfo reporterlast_img read more

What’s next for Midwest land values?

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Data released by land grant universities and industry organizations point out that there has been less farm and ranch land for sale than usual the past few years. Despite today’s slow land market, Farmers National Company is experiencing a 50% increase in the land it has for sale over its previous high volume.The historic run-up in land prices during the decade leading up to and including 2013 faded in to the background as the past four years instead witnessed a steady and measured decline in values for crop and grazing land throughout the Midwest. Some regions experienced the decline sooner with a larger drop-off in land prices, whereas other regions saw less of a decline. Good quality land generally declined less while lower quality tracts saw weak demand and a bigger price decline. At this time, the market for quality land is steady to slightly stronger. So, what’s next for land values, up or down?Randy Dickhut, AFM, senior vice president of real estate operations for Farmers National Company, said there are a number of positive factors supporting current land values.“The industry has experienced a post-harvest bump in land prices in most grain producing areas. With above average crop yields in most locations, farmer optimism has increased as has the bidding for quality crop land. The supply of land on the open market remains low while the number of buyers and demand is adequate for what is on the market at this time,” Dickhut said.Other factors also are providing support for today’s land prices, Dickhut noted. Continued low interest rates are helping create a demand for ag land as a long-term investment for individuals and institutional funds.AUDIO: The Ohio Ag Net’s Ty Higgins visits with Farmers National Company’s Randy Dickhut about current land values and demand and what stagnant commodity prices will mean for both in 2018Farmers National Randy Dickhut Land Values“In general, there is still enough purchasing power in the hands of farmers to compete for good land or land that helps grow the operation. We are also seeing a small increase in 1031 tax deferred exchange buyers as they move to trade into different land or to diversify out of other real estate holdings and into cropland,” Dickhut said.However, there also are factors on the horizon that could negatively affect land values, Dickhut noted. Current farm economics are not conducive to strength in the land market. Low grain prices are keeping overall farm income levels depressed. That means that lower incomes are reducing the cash flow necessary to finance crop inputs, equipment needs and land payments, leaving less cash for land purchases.“Individual and institutional investors are well aware of the lower grain prices and incomes. The resulting reduction in the return on investment for land has kept some investors out of the land market during the past few years,” he said.Another factor that may weigh on land prices is that lenders are being more cautious in the amount of money they will lend for agricultural land purchases. This could dampen demand as farmers and ranchers are the predominant buyers of crop and grazing land, Dickhut pointed out.“Cash flow and equity concerns of farmers could generate additional land for sale in the market as some producers liquidate either land or equipment to shore up their finances. The magnitude of these additional land sales will probably be small and vary by region, but the potential for an increase in the supply of land on the market bears watching,” he said.The final factor that could have a downward effect on land values are the outside influences. This could include negative outcomes for trade that U.S. agriculture depends upon, unexpected consequences from tax laws and potential changes in the next Farm Bill.“The next six months will determine the direction of land values,” Dickhut said. “Economic and financial factors will become more evident for producers and lenders and those outside influences will become better defined as we move through 2018.”last_img read more

Do These Walls Need a Poly Vapor Barrier?

first_imgZane Bridgers is building a single-story house in northern New Mexico and has nearly completed the framed exterior walls. As his mind turns to air sealing, he’s considering whether to install an interior vapor barrier — and whether his uncle, a builder of 40 years, is giving him good advice on how to proceed. Walls on the slab-on-grade structure will include R-19 fiberglass cavity insulation, 5/8-inch OSB sheathing, a 2-inch layer of polyiso rigid insulation, a drainage layer and, finally, three-coat stucco. In the roof, Bridgers plans 6-mil poly under the drywall, followed by 2 inches of polyiso, R-38 fiberglass batts, a 2-inch ventilation channel, OSB sheathing and metal roofing. “This is a predominately cold and dry heating climate with big temperature swings,” Bridgers writes in a Q&A post of the Climate Zone 5 locale. “I was talking with my uncle who has been a builder here for 40 years. He was explaining the importance of dry heat for optimal performance of fiberglass insulation, hence his recommendation to put the 6 mil plastic on the ceiling … I was planning to tape the foil faced polyiso for this effect, but he thinks it’s a waste of time and effort vs. the 6 mil poly.”RELATED ARTICLESWorries About Trapping MoistureSite-Built Ventilation Baffles for RoofsCalculating the Minimum Thickness of Rigid Foam SheathingOne Air Barrier or Two?Vapor Retarders and Vapor Barriers Bridgers is equally concerned about another bit of advice he’s been given: Add a layer of poly to the walls. “This caused a bit more concern as it seems it could potentially trap moisture in the wall cavity, especially since I had planned foil-faced polyiso under the stucco, also taped,” Bridgers adds. “He suggested leaving somewhere for the moisture to go.” Bridgers has two other questions. First, is it a waste of time to seal the OSB and framing when the exterior foam and drywall seem like much easier ways of controlling air leaks? And second, with a continuous layer of rigid foam over the wall sheathing, where is the point in the assembly where condensation is likely to occur? Those concerns will get us started on this Q&A Spotlight. Water doesn’t need to escape GBA editor Martin Holladay, referring Bridgers to an article he had written on the topic previously, notes that interior moisture doesn’t really need to go anywhere. “Water doesn’t need to escape from your house,” Holladay writes. “Although it’s true that indoor air is warm and humid during the winter, while outdoor air is cold and dry, that doesn’t mean that indoor moisture needs to ‘escape’ from your house. It’s perfectly OK if the indoor moisture stays where it is without ‘escaping.’ ” Holladay explains that walls with exterior rigid foam should never have interior polyethylene, since foam-sheathed walls need to be able to dry to the interior. Either polyiso or expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulation would make a good choice, and taping the seams would be time well spent. “Air sealing efforts are almost never a waste of time,” he says. “Whether or not you need redundancy (basically, multiple air barriers) depends on your airtightness target and your budget.” What about Bridgers’ concerns about condensation inside the walls? “The idea is to specify enough rigid foam on the exterior of your wall sheathing so that condensation does not occur,” Holladay says. “In your climate zone, your rigid foam needs a minimum R-value of R-7.5 if your walls are framed with 2x6s. “Skip the interior polyethylene,” he adds, “pay attention to airtightness, and everything will be fine.” What about venting the roof? If the walls are better off without the poly, should it still be used in the ceiling? Bridgers asks. There’s no code requirement for including a vapor barrier on the interior side of a vented roof assembly, Holladay replies. The most important thing is airtightness, not preventing vapor diffusion. Drywall can be an air barrier, providing Bridgers pays close attention to sealing any penetrations, particularly the electrical boxes. Bridgers sees a problem with adding foam or plastic ventilation baffles above the fiberglass in the roof because either would prevent moisture from being wicked out of the insulation. “The purpose of the vent channel is to help keep the roof sheathing dry,” Holladay says. “You are not trying to wick moisture out of the fiberglass … You aren’t trying to help indoor moisture escape. It’s OK if indoor moisture stays where it is, all winter long.” One air barrier is enough Peter Engle writes that Bridgers has three potential air barriers in the ceiling: the foil facing on the foam insulation, the poly, and the drywall. “You only need one, well detailed and airtight,” Engle says. “If you can make the drywall airtight, you can skip the poly and use any polyiso foam you want, or EPS foam. If you are worried about the drywall being airtight, you can tape the seams in the foil polyiso.” Jon R, however, suggests there’s nothing wrong with multiple air barriers. “More air barriers will generally outperform one,” he says. “If you can only have one, the best (for your climate) is the interior side.” Addressing the risk of condensation Jon R adds that the choice of exterior foam may make a difference to how well the wall performs: “With external foam, a wall that can dry a little to the exterior (say EPS) will outperform a similar wall that can’t (say same R-value of foil-faced foam).” He takes issue with the idea that a wall must be designed so that there is a zero chance of condensation taking place. “The idea is to reduce the amount of condensation to the point where it sometimes occurs but isn’t enough to cause a problem,” he writes. “Going beyond that, all the way to ‘no condensation’ is unnecessary expense. Some in-wall condensation *will occur* at the minimum recommended foam R values.” Holladay replies: “When sheathing is cold in the winter, and in contact with warm humid air, what happens isn’t really condensation. It’s sorption. The moisture content of the cold OSB or plywood sheathing increases when the warm humid air is in contact with it.” That said, the building science in this case is clear. When the exterior foam is thick enough, the sheathing stays dry. If the foam is too thin, the siding may get damp, which is risky. With that in mind, Bridgers asks, would a 2-inch layer of polyiso with an R-value of 13 be a better bet than a 2-inch layer of EPS, with an R-value of 8? “That’s exactly the right type of question,” Jon R replies. “WUFI might provide a useful answer. Forced to weigh various factors and guess in your case (never a good way to do design), I’d say the R-13. Better than either if it were unfaced/higher perms.” Agreed, says Holladay: R-13 is preferable to R-8. Our expert’s opinion GBA technical director Peter Yost made the following points: Cavity or interstitial condensation: There are two primary drivers of this phenomenon: the difference in temperature between the interior and exterior, and the interior relative humidity. Yes, it’s plenty dry in New Mexico during the winter, but occupants can generate quite a bit of moisture (for more, see this). So, make sure you manage interior sources of moisture and have humidity-sensing devices so that occupants know what the interior relative humidity is. Location and nature of air control layer/barrier: If I only get to choose one location for an air barrier, I choose the exterior, for two reasons. One, it’s much easier to get continuity on the exterior (no intersecting interior partitions or floor assemblies to worry about). Two, exterior air barriers deal better with wind-washing at the corners of buildings. Continuity is key. It’s easy to designate elements of the air control layer, but more difficult to get them all connected. Pick one plane for the air barrier, and then make it continuous. If you can get more than one air barrier, great. But one continuous barrier is way more beneficial than two or more discontinuous ones. Building assembly drying potential: It’s ideal to select every individual layer of an assembly (based on vapor permeance) so that there is drying in both directions, but our assemblies are complex enough these days that settling for drying potential in one direction is reasonable. Avoid selecting Class I — and if you can, Class II — vapor retarding materials on one side of your assembly or the other to get that single-direction drying potential. Bottom line: There’s absolutely no need for polyethylene. Don’t put in a Class I vapor retarder/barrier unless you have to.last_img read more