Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jan 17 2019Chaos in bodily regulation can optimize our immune system according to a recent discovery made by researchers at the University of Copenhagen’s Niels Bohr Institute. The discovery may prove to be of great significance for avoiding serious diseases such as cancer and diabetes.Wide gaps exist in our understanding of how the immune system works and how we might avoid diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Now, two researchers at the University of Copenhagen’s Niels Bohr Institute have made a discovery that could prove to be an important piece of the puzzle. PhD Mathias Heltberg and Professor Mogens Høgh Jensen have found an entirely new mechanism in the way that bodily cells regulate themselves – through chaos.The researchers investigated how a particular protein produced within cells, NF-kB, stimulates genes. Among other things, this particular protein is vital for maintaining the body’s immune defense system and thereby, the body’s ability to combat disease. The concentration of NF-kB fluctuates over time, and these swings impact the genes and subsequently, the condition of cells.The researchers demonstrated that chaotic swings in the concentration of the protein – what in mathematics is known as chaotic dynamics – can increase the activation of a number of genes that are otherwise not activated. In other words, when in a chaotic state, the NF-kB protein is most effective at activating genes and optimally “tuning” the immune system.”The results can have a tremendous impact on our understanding of how the immune system functions and how the incidence of some of the most serious illnesses, including diabetes, cancer and Alzheimer’s, might be avoided. For example, we know that cancer is related to a failure of signaling within the body. So, to avoid cancer, it is imperative to have the right dynamic at work in cells,” says Mogens Høgh Jensen, a professor in biocomplexity at the University of Copenhagen’s Niels Bohr Institute.Related StoriesStudy shows potential culprit behind LupusMaking Bacterial Infections a Thing of the Past for Chronic Respiratory ConditionsMathematical model helps identify determinants of persistent MRSA bacteremiaImproved knowledge can improve cancer treatmentThe researchers point out that this new knowledge can be deployed in future therapies.”These could come in the form of new medications that ensure proper protein function. Therapies could also involve the withdrawal and testing of cells from a body to gauge whether cells are in the right condition to have the correct swings. If they aren’t, it may be possible to predict and discover illnesses before they occur,” explains Mathias Heltberg, a PhD student in Biocomplexity.The research results are among the first to prove that chaos can be an important aspect of the mechanisms that steer the enormous complexity characteristic of all living things. Even the researchers were surprised by their discovery, as chaotic dynamics is often seen as something that living organisms seek to avoid. The new knowledge opens up an entirely new understanding of how genes can be regulated through varied swings in the proteins that control them.”Chaos is a mathematically well-defined dynamic, one that, for example, has previously been used to explain great changes in weather systems. With the enormous complexity that characterizes higher order living things, it is evident that chaotic dynamics will occur in different types of systems. But how chaos plays a decisive role in living cells is entirely new,” concludes Mogens Høgh Jensen. Source:https://www.science.ku.dk/english/press/news/2019/chaos-in-the-body-tunes-up-your-immune-system/
Source:https://ki.se/en/news/genetic-analysis-can-provide-better-dosage-of-antipsychotic-drugs Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Apr 16 2019An initial gene analysis may yield better outcomes when patients are treated with the antipsychotic drugs risperidone and aripiprazole. A novel study shows how the activity of a specific enzyme, which metabolizes the two drugs, affects the individual dose that should be given for optimal treatment. The study is published in The Lancet Psychiatry and has been conducted by researchers at Karolinska Institutet, in collaboration with the Diakonhjemmet Hospital in Oslo, Norway.The enzyme CYP2D6 metabolizes many different drugs in the body, including the antipsychotic drugs risperidone and aripiprazole. The activity of the enzyme differs widely in the population due to variations in the CYP2D6 gene.In collaboration with Espen Molden’s group at the Diakonhjemmet Hospital in Oslo, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have studied how CYP2D6 gene variants affect the treatment result in 2,622 patients with psychosis or schizophrenia receiving either risperidone or aripiprazole.Related StoriesGenetic contribution to distractibility helps explain procrastinationDoes genetic testing affect psychosocial health?Study: Treatment of psychosis can be targeted to specific genetic mutationThe results show that patients with low CYP2D6 enzyme activity were given the drugs at too high a dose, while patients with high enzyme activity were given the drugs at too low a dose. As a consequence, many of them switched medication.”In patients with too low or too high activity of the CYP2D6 enzyme, treatment failed to a larger extent, most likely due to side effects and lack of efficacy, respectively,” says Marin Jukic, researcher at the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at Karolinska Institutet and the study’s first author.Compare dose changes”Interestingly, we found that without knowing which gene variant the patient had, the psychiatrists had in the main altered the dose based on the clinical outcome, and this correlated with the anticipated effects of the patient’s specific CYP2D6 genotype,” says Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Senior Professor at the same department at Karolinska Institutet and the study’s last author. “However, the dose changes were insufficient to avoid side effects or lack of effect. This is the first time we have been able to retrospectively compare dose changes during routine clinical treatment with the patient’s specific genotype.”The researchers believe that genotyping, i.e. the identification of the specific gene variant the patient carries, before initiation of risperidone or aripiprazole treatment, would result in much more effective treatment for millions of patients globally.”Further studies are now needed to test other psychoactive drugs in order to generate additional scientific evidence to support new recommendations in psychiatry,” says Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg. “Psychiatrists also need more education in this area.”In the early 1990s, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg’s research group was the first in the world to show the presence of several variants of the CYP2D6 gene explaining why some people, the so-called ultra-rapid metabolizers, require higher drug doses than others.
“This would be true regardless of race or ethnicity, so we might expect to see menthol flavoring making it more difficult for everyone to quit. The fact that we didn’t find consistency across racial and ethnic groups, we think, might point to the causal role of social influences like tobacco marketing,” he added.Related StoriesTelomere shortening in adulthood is not caused by smoking, say researchersCollege affirmative action bans may increase smoking rates among minority high school studentsStudy reveals how habitual smoking may contribute to development of hypertensionBig Tobacco’s marketing efforts have included heavier advertising of menthols on billboards in predominantly African American neighborhoods, and ads in African American-centric magazines, compared to white communities and periodicals.In addition, the industry has provided philanthropic support to organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the National Urban League, Giovino added.A recent study by Giovino and colleagues suggests that tobacco companies are holding onto the menthol market better than non-menthol cigarettes. “Less quitting by menthol smokers is part of the reason why,” he said.Smokers’ inaccurate perceptions of menthol cigarettes have further compounded cessation efforts, Giovino says.”Some people believe they are less dangerous, even though they are, in epidemiological studies, found to be at least as dangerous as non-mentholated cigarettes,” he said. “Menthol is a topical anesthetic that numbs the respiratory tract. People inhale them more easily, which gives the perception of safety.”The idea for the study stemmed from a conversation between Smith and study co-author Biruktawit Assefa, now with Yale University School of Public Health, who worked with Smith when she was an undergraduate intern at Yale.”We wanted to more conclusively look at whether there are racial differences in how menthol flavoring may impede smoking cessation, across studies published on the topic,” Smith said.Essentially, it’s about social injustice, said Smith, who wants to use research “to give power back to communities from which power has been taken.””It all comes down to power and who has more of it and who has less of it, and why,” Smith added. Banning menthol from tobacco products — which the study recommends — might help shift the power, he said.”Such a policy might effectively take some power away from the tobacco industry and give it back to blacks and African Americans in the U.S.,” Smith said. Source:University at BuffaloJournal reference:Smith, P.H. et al. (2019) Use of Mentholated Cigarettes and Likelihood of Smoking Cessation in the United States: A Meta-Analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz067. Much of the rationale for why menthol flavoring might impede cessation has to do with how menthol flavoring might make the nicotine in cigarettes more reinforcing.” Philip Smith, study’s lead author Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Jun 17 2019For decades, Big Tobacco has sold African American smokers on menthol-flavored cigarettes through targeted marketing campaigns. That’s among the reasons why, in the U.S., black smokers who prefer menthols are 12% less likely to quit smoking compared to non-menthol users, according to the results of a newly published study.The findings, reported today in the journal Nicotine & Tobacco Research, underscore the role that mentholated cigarettes play in smoking cessation efforts, particularly among African American tobacco users, says the study’s lead author, Philip Smith, an assistant professor in the Department of Kinesiology and Health at Miami University (OH).Menthol cigarettes were first sold in the 1920s. The tobacco industry began targeting African Americans in the 1940s and menthol use grew along with the belief that menthols were less dangerous, according to Gary Giovino, the study’s senior author and a professor of community health and health behavior at the University at Buffalo who has extensively studied the marketing and use of menthol cigarettes.The study — a meta-analysis of 19 studies plucked from a review of more than 400 abstracts — looks at the association between menthol use and smoking cessation.The finding that menthol flavoring was associated with less success in quitting smoking among African Americans wasn’t surprising, Smith said. The lack of association for white smokers, however, was.
Here are the highlights:___MAPS: Google will use augmented reality to help guide you to your destination. When you pull up direction on Google Maps, you can look through the camera and get turn-by-turn directions while viewing the actual street. The app will also orient you and verify your position using local landmarks such as buildings and shops viewed through the camera. Google calls the technology VPS, or visual positioning system. The feature is expected this summer.___GOOGLE DUPLEX: Google’s digital assistant will call actual people at businesses to make restaurant reservations and hair appointments and check holiday hours. In two demonstrations, a realistic-sounding automated voice used pauses and “ums” and “mmm-hmms” to sound more human during interactions with people. Google says the technology is rolling out as “an experiment” in coming weeks. Google says it’s still figuring out how to be upfront and let businesses know that they are talking to a computer.___GMAIL: An autocomplete feature called “smart compose” uses artificial intelligence to suggest ways to finish sentences you start typing. For example, “I haven’t seen you” might be autocompleted to “I haven’t seen you in a while and I hope you’re doing well.” The feature will start rolling out this month. NEWS: Google is redesigning the News feature to present five stories you need to know, plus others that it thinks will be most relevant to you. For outlets with subscriptions, Google will allow you to subscribe directly through your Google account, without needing new passwords or credit card information. The feature should be available to everyone by next week.___ANDROID P: The version of Google’s Android phone software will infuse basic functions with AI smarts. The battery will adapt to how you use apps in order to conserve energy. “Adaptive brightness” will learn how bright you like your screen based on manual adjustments, instead of automatically adjusting based on the how bright it is. Apple’s latest system, iOS 11, has a similar feature. Owners of some Android phones—none from Samsung—can get an early test version now.___WELL-BEING: Android P also includes features to combat overuse. A “shush” mode automatically turns on the “Do Not Disturb” mode when you turn your phone face down on a table. And “Wind Down Mode” will fade the screen to greyscale at a designated bed time to help you disconnect before bed. ___LENS: Google’s visual assistant will be built into the camera. Just point the camera at a building or sign to get more information. Or copy text from images of menus, documents and other sources into another app on your phone. Samsung phones aren’t on the list of phones getting the feature starting next week. Samsung has its own version, Bixby Vision.___ © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Google CEO Sundar Pichai speaks about gmail features at the Google I/O conference in Mountain View, Calif., Tuesday, May 8, 2018. (AP Photo/Jeff Chiu) Google CEO Sundar Pichai speaks at the Google I/O conference in Mountain View, Calif., Tuesday, May 8, 2018. (AP Photo/Jeff Chiu) Google showcased its plans for the next several months as it kicked off its annual developers’ conference Tuesday. Many of the new features center on the use of artificial intelligence to help save time. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Google showcases AI advances at its big conference Citation: At a glance: How new Google features tap digital smarts (2018, May 8) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-glance-google-features-digital-smarts.html Google CEO Sundar Pichai speaks under a video showing singer John Legend at the Google I/O conference in Mountain View, Calif., Tuesday, May 8, 2018. (AP Photo/Jeff Chiu) Explore further ___PHOTOS: When Google recognizes a photo of someone who is one of your contacts, it can suggest sending the photo to that person. It can also convert photos to PDFs and automatically add color to black-and-white photos or make part of a color photo black and white. The changes are coming in the next few months.___GOOGLE ASSISTANT: Google’s digital assistant will get six new voices, including one based on that of singer John Legend, later this year. The voices aim to sound more natural and will include pauses that convey meaning. Google is also unveiling ways to let you issue multiple commands without having to say “Hey Google” each time. And it will reward kids who say “please,” similar to a feature Amazon is bringing to its Alexa voice assistant.
If you can recognize structures around you while walking down a city street, you have your eyes to thank. Humans can automatically perceive 3-D structure in the world by identifying lines, shapes, symmetries and the patterns and relationships between them in things like buildings, sidewalks and everyday objects. But can a computer be taught to do the same? Credit: CC0 Public Domain Zihan Zhou, assistant professor of information sciences and technology at Penn State, is setting out to explore that question thanks to a recent grant from the National Science Foundation.”We want a computer to see 3-D space as humans do,” said Zhou. “This particular award and project is about structure perception, which has been largely ignored in 3-D vision. This is something that has not been done before.”Structure perception is the ability of a human’s eyes to organize data or patterns and group them in certain ways. For example, a human can look at a line drawing of a building and visualize doors, windows and walls.”There are many types of these relationships in the real world, and humans make use of those relationships to sense the 3-D space,” he said. “Human eyes can easily perceive these kinds of things. The question now is: Can the computer have the ability to sense these things as a human does?”To answer that question, Zhou plans to develop a new data-driven framework for structure discovery, leveraging the availability of massive visual data and recent advances in machine learning techniques.These techniques could then be applied to a wide spectrum of real-world computer vision problems, including 3-D modeling of urban environments, virtual and augmented reality, and autonomous driving. The research could also impact cognitive sciences, by suggesting new computational mechanisms for image understanding; and human-robot interaction, by enabling robots to reason in terms of geometric shape, physics and dynamics.”If a robot recognizes something as a specific type of structure, then it knows how to interact with it,” said Zhou. “For example, if a robot is able to recognize a structure with a flat top, it would know that it could put an object like a cup on it.”Additionally, the framework may impact the work of architects, designers and engineers.”If you think of those architects, they are working with 3-D models every day,” said Zhou. “If they build something, they first create line drawings. So if a computer can understand doors and windows in the drawings, it would be very useful for architectural design and engineering.”Zhou developed an interest in this topic while a graduate intern at Adobe. In his internship, he studied the relationship between camera motion and the environment, which could help the movie industry to analyze scenes.”I tried to extract some kinds of structures from the videos and the sequence of the camera,” he said. “At that point it was to analyze camera trajectory for the movie industry, but later we realized it was more systematic.”Now, at Penn State, Zhou hopes to leverage the interdisciplinary network to advance his work.”IST has people working in diverse areas, and many of them can be impacted by this kind of work,” he said. “This has generated a lot of interest in different areas. We are looking to extend this beyond and to find applications to make this more collaborative.””About 70 percent of information we obtain is from visual cues from our eyes,” he concluded. “Obviously we have areas like natural language processing to help understand speaking and sounds, but human vision is the dominating factor in how we understand this world. To make the computer see the world as we do is one of the most exciting areas in artificial intelligence and computer science.” Explore further Provided by Pennsylvania State University Researchers use AI to add 4-D effects to movies Citation: Helping computers to see 3-D structures (2018, November 30) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-d.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
In this Dec. 11, 2018, file photo, Google CEO Sundar Pichai appears before the House Judiciary Committee to be questioned about the internet giant’s privacy security and data collection, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Google attracted concern about its continuous surveillance of users and other concerns bubbled up this month as lawmakers grilled Pichai. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite, File) Explore further The list is long: High-tech tools for immigration crackdowns. Fears of smartphone addiction . YouTube algorithms that steer youths into extremism. An experiment in gene-edited babies .Doorbells and concert venues that can pinpoint individual faces and alert police. Repurposing genealogy websites to hunt for crime suspects based on a relative’s DNA. Automated systems that keep tabs of workers’ movements and habits. Electric cars in Shanghai transmitting their every movement to the government.It’s been enough to exhaust even the most imaginative sci-fi visionaries.”It doesn’t so much feel like we’re living in the future now, as that we’re living in a retro-future,” novelist William Gibson wrote this month on Twitter. “A dark, goofy ’90s retro-future.”More awaits us in 2019, as surveillance and data-collection efforts ramp up and artificial intelligence systems start sounding more human , reading facial expressions and generating fake video images so realistic that it will be harder to detect malicious distortions of the truth.But there are also countermeasures afoot in Congress and state government—and even among tech-firm employees who are more active about ensuring their work is put to positive ends. “It was necessary to convene this hearing because of the widening gap of distrust between technology companies and the American people,” Republican House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy said.Internet pioneer Vint Cerf said he and other engineers never imagined their vision of a worldwide network of connected computers would morph 45 years later into a surveillance system that collects personal information or a propaganda machine that could sway elections.”We were just trying to get it to work,” recalled Cerf, who is now Google’s chief internet evangelist. “But now that it’s in the hands of the general public, there are people who … want it to work in a way that obviously does harm, or benefits themselves, or disrupts the political system. So we are going to have to deal with that.”Contrary to futuristic fears of “super-intelligent” robots taking control, the real dangers of our tech era have crept in more prosaically—often in the form of tech innovations we welcomed for making life more convenient .Part of experts’ concern about the leap into connecting every home device to the internet and letting computers do our work is that the technology is still buggy and influenced by human errors and prejudices. Uber and Tesla were investigated for fatal self-driving car crashes in March, IBM came under scrutiny for working with New York City police to build a facial recognition system that can detect ethnicity, and Amazon took heat for supplying its own flawed facial recognition service to law enforcement agencies.In some cases, opposition to the tech industry’s rush to apply its newest innovations to questionable commercial uses has come from its own employees. Google workers helped scuttle the company’s Pentagon drone contract, and workers at Amazon, Microsoft and Salesforce sought to cancel their companies’ contracts to supply tech services to immigration authorities.”It became obvious to a lot of people that the rhetoric of doing good and benefiting society and ‘Don’t be evil’ was not what these companies were actually living up to,” said Whittaker, who is also a research scientist at Google who founded its Open Research group. In this April 10, 2018, file photo, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg arrives to testify before a joint hearing of the Commerce and Judiciary Committees on Capitol Hill in Washington, about the use of Facebook data to target American voters in the 2016 election. We may remember 2018 as the year in which technology’s dystopian potential became clear, from Facebook’s role enabling the harvesting of our personal data for election interference to a seemingly unending series of revelations about the dark side of Silicon Valley’s connect-everything ethos. (AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais, File) At the same time, even some titans of technology have been sounding alarms. Prominent engineers and designers have increasingly spoken out about shielding children from the habit-forming tech products they helped create.And then there’s Microsoft President Brad Smith, who in December called for regulating facial recognition technology so that the “year 2024 doesn’t look like a page” from George Orwell’s “1984.”In a blog post and a Washington speech, Smith painted a bleak vision of all-seeing government surveillance systems forcing dissidents to hide in darkened rooms “to tap in code with hand signals on each other’s arms.”To avoid such an Orwellian scenario, Smith advocates regulating technology so that anyone about to subject themselves to surveillance is properly notified. But privacy advocates argue that’s not enough.Such debates are already happening in states like Illinois, where a strict facial recognition law has faced tech industry challenges, and California, which in 2018 passed the nation’s most far-reaching law to give consumers more control over their personal data. It takes effect in 2020.The issue could find new attention in Congress next year as more Republicans warm up to the idea of basic online privacy regulations and the incoming Democratic House majority takes a more skeptical approach to tech firms that many liberal politicians once viewed as allies—and prolific campaign donors.The “leave them alone” approach of the early internet era won’t work anymore, said Rep. David Cicilline, a Rhode Island Democrat poised to take the helm of the House’s antitrust subcommittee. We may remember 2018 as the year when technology’s dystopian potential became clear, from Facebook’s role enabling the harvesting of our personal data for election interference to a seemingly unending series of revelations about the dark side of Silicon Valley’s connect-everything ethos. © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. In this Aug. 8, 2018, file photo, a mobile phone displays a user’s travels using Google Maps in New York. Google attracted concern about its continuous surveillance of users after The Associated Press reported that it was tracking people’s movements whether they like it or not. (AP Photo/Seth Wenig, File) “We’re seeing now some of the consequences of the abuses that can occur in these platforms if they remain unregulated without meaningful oversight or enforcement,” Cicilline said.Too much regulation may bring its own undesirable side effects, Cerf warned.”It’s funny in a way because this online environment was supposed to remove friction from our ability to transact,” he said. “If in our desire, if not zeal, to protect people’s privacy we throw sand in the gears of everything, we may end up with a very secure system that doesn’t work very well.” In this April 18, 2018, file photo, a graphic from the Cambridge Analytica website is displayed on a computer screen in New York. Among the most troubling cases of what made 2018 so ominous was the revelation in March that political data-mining firm Cambridge Analytica swept up personal information of millions of Facebook users for the purpose of manipulating national elections. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan, File) Citation: Did 2018 usher in a creeping tech dystopia? (2018, December 25) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-12-usher-tech-dystopia.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Microsoft unveils facial recognition principles, urges new laws This Jan. 17, 2017, file photo shows a Facebook logo being displayed in a start-up companies gathering at Paris’ Station F, in Paris. We may remember 2018 as the year in which technology’s dystopian potential became clear, from Facebook’s role enabling the harvesting of our personal data for election interference to a seemingly unending series of revelations about the dark side of Silicon Valley’s connect-everything ethos. (AP Photo/Thibault Camus, File) “Something that was heartening this year was that accompanying this parade of scandals was a growing public awareness that there’s an accountability crisis in tech,” said Meredith Whittaker, a co-founder of New York University’s AI Now Institute for studying the social implications of artificial intelligence.The group has compiled a long list of what made 2018 so ominous, though many are examples of the public simply becoming newly aware of problems that have built up for years. Among the most troubling cases was the revelation in March that political data-mining firm Cambridge Analytica swept up personal information of millions of Facebook users for the purpose of manipulating national elections.”It really helped wake up people to the fact that these systems are actually touching the core of our lives and shaping our social institutions,” Whittaker said.That was on top of other Facebook disasters, including its role in fomenting violence in Myanmar , major data breaches and ongoing concerns about its hosting of fake accounts for Russian propaganda . It wasn’t just Facebook. Google attracted concern about its continuous surveillance of users after The Associated Press reported that it was tracking people’s movements whether they like it or not.It also faced internal dissent over its collaboration with the U.S. military to create drones with “computer vision” to help find battlefield targets and a secret proposal to launch a censored search engine in China. And it unveiled a remarkably human-like voice assistant that sounds so real that people on the other end of the phone didn’t know they were talking to a computer.Those and other concerns bubbled up in December as lawmakers grilled Google CEO Sundar Pichai at a congressional hearing—a sequel to similar public reckonings this year with Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and other tech executives.
Provided by DARPA Citation: DARPA prototype reflectarray antenna offers high performance in small package (2019, January 23) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-darpa-prototype-reflectarray-antenna-high.html Rocket Lab successfully sends rocket into orbit Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. DARPA’s Radio Frequency Risk Reduction Deployment Demonstration (R3D2) is set for launch in late February to space-qualify a new type of membrane reflectarray antenna. The antenna, made of a tissue-thin Kapton membrane, packs tightly for stowage during launch and then will deploy to its full size of 2.25 meters in diameter once it reaches low Earth orbit. R3D2 will monitor antenna deployment dynamics, survivability and radio frequency (RF) characteristics of a membrane antenna in low-Earth orbit. The antenna could enable multiple missions that currently require large satellites, to include high data rate communications to disadvantaged users on the ground. A successful demonstration also will help prove out a smaller, faster-to-launch and lower cost capability, allowing the Department of Defense, as well as other users, to make the most of the new commercial market for small, inexpensive launch vehicles. Satellite design, development, and launch took approximately 18 months.”The Department of Defense has prioritized rapid acquisition of small satellite and launch capabilities. By relying on commercial acquisition practices, DARPA streamlined the R3D2 mission from conception through launch services acquisition,” said Fred Kennedy, director of DARPA’s Tactical Technology Office. “This mission could help validate emerging concepts for a resilient sensor and data transport layer in low Earth orbit – a capability that does not exist today, but one which could revolutionize global communications by laying the groundwork for a space-based internet.”The launch will take place on a Rocket Lab USA Electron rocket from the company’s launch complex on the Mahia Peninsula of New Zealand. Northrop Grumman is the prime contractor and integrated the 150 kg satellite; MMA Design designed and built the antenna. Trident Systems designed and built R3D2’s software-defined radio, while Blue Canyon Technologies provided the spacecraft bus. MMA Design successfully completes deployment testing of its innovative high-compaction ratio reflectarray antenna in its Louisville, Colorado facilities. Credit: DARPA
Week 11Nov. 17at Lions1:00 p.m. SIGN UP to watch every NFL preseason and regular season game and RedZone during the 2019 season on DAZNAn expected contender in the NFC East with the Philadelphia Eagles, if the Cowboys can surpass the success of Carson Wentz and company, the NFC East could be looking at a deep run in the postseason.Key additionsRandall Cobb (WR), Robert Quinn (DE)Key lossesCole Beasley (WR), Terrance Williams (WR)Preseason scheduleWeekDateOpponentTime/Result Week 1Aug. 10at 49ers9:00 p.m. Week 10Nov. 10vs. Vikings8:20 p.m. Week 15Dec. 15vs. Rams4:25 p.m. Week 3Sept. 22vs. Dolphins1:00 p.m. Week 1Sept. 8vs. Giants4:25 p.m. What is the cost and how do I sign up for DAZN?You can sign up for a FREE trial of DAZN and subscribe for $20 CAD per month or $150 CAD per year by clicking here . What devices are supported by DAZN?DAZN has apps available for all of the following platforms: Apple TV, Chromecast, Amazon Fire TV, Amazon Fire Stick, Amazon Fire Tablet, Android Phone & Tablet, iPhone & iPad, Android TV, LG, Smart TV, Panasonic Smart TV, Samsung Smart TV, Sony Smart TV, SmartCast, Xbox One, Xbox One S, Xbox One X, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4 Pro, and Roku.What other sports stream on DAZN?Besides streaming every NFL game and RedZone, DAZN airs every match from Europa League, Champions League and Premier League soccer. In addition, DAZN has the rights to stream MLS games in Canada, championship boxing and MMA events, ATP and WTA tour events and MLB Network. (All times Eastern)How to watch the Dallas Cowboys in Canada Every Dallas Cowboys game during the 2019 preseason, regular season and playoffs is streamed in high-definition on DAZN .DAZN Canada has also partnered with Bell, Rogers, Shaw, SaskTel and other cable/satellite providers to distribute NFL Sunday Ticket across Canada, for Sunday afternoon games.However, DAZN is the only place to watch every preseason, regular season (including Thursday night, Sunday night and Monday night games) and playoff games, plus exclusive access to RedZone.Each game is available LIVE and ON DEMAND.What is DAZN?DAZN is a global sports streaming service that offers exclusive coverage of every NFL game and RedZone in Canada, both LIVE and ON DEMAND.Football fans in Canada also can enjoy 24/7 streaming of the NFL Network on DAZN, which includes complete coverage of the NFL Draft, Scouting Combine and Free Agency. Week 4Aug 29vs. Buccaneers8:00 p.m. Week 16Dec. 22at Eagles4:25 p.m. Week 8Oct. 27– Week 4Sept. 29at Saints8:20 p.m. Week 7Oct. 20vs. Eagles8:20 p.m. Week 5Oct. 6vs. Packers4:25 p.m. Week 2Aug. 17at Rams10:00 p.m. Week 14Dec. 5 (Thurs.)at Bears8:20 p.m. Week 13Nov. 28 (Thurs.)vs Bills4:30 p.m. Week 12Nov. 24at Patriots4:25 p.m. Week 9Nov. 4 (Mon.)at Giants8:15 p.m. Week 6Oct. 13at Jets4:25 p.m. Week 3Aug. 24vs Texans7:00 p.m. Late-season success gave the Dallas Cowboys a fighting chance in the playoffs but they were sent packing in the second round against the Los Angeles Rams. The Amari Cooper-Dak Prescott connection got a lot of attention and success in the big moments late last season. If the passing game continues to improve, paired with star running back Ezekiel Elliott, the Cowboys could be dangerous again this fall.Defensively, there are big questions in Dallas; however, linebacker Leighton Vander Esch shined bright in the heart of the Cowboy’s defense last season. Many questioned his first-round selection initially, but after making the Pro Bowl in his first season, the doubters have been put to rest. Week 2Sept. 15at Redskins1:00 p.m. Week 17Dec. 29vs Redskins1:00 p.m. (All times Eastern)Game to watchWeek 7 vs Eagles: The Dallas Cowboys will square off against Philadelphia on Sunday Night Football once again this season and with the first meeting halfway through the schedule, a lot rides on the outcome. The Eagles and Cowboys could both have favorable records and division seeding might come down to head-to-head results in 2019.Regular season scheduleWEEKDATEOPPONENTTime/Result