In This Issue… * Risk assets healing is wiped out… * Euro and A$ lead currencies lower… * Gold can’t find a bid… * Chinese renminbi takes baby steps lower… And, Now, Today’s Pfennig For Your Thoughts! A Full-On Risk Aversion Day… Good day… And a Marvelous Monday to you! Well… ding dong me, I forgot that I said I was going to write from home on Mondays, that is until I was ½ -way to work… UGH! Oh well, I’m here in the sauna, so let’s get to what’s on my mind today, no wait, you probably don’t want to know what’s on MY mind, but rather what’s going on in the world… So, here we go! On Friday, I left you with the thought that the risk assets, were attempting to heal from Thursday’s bloodletting… There was no U.S. data to swing the traders one way or the other, so, it appeared that the week would end with some healing in the risk assets… But, that appearance didn’t last long, and soon the small gains that had been booked were wiped out… But still, no major sell off like on Thursday, so at least the risk assets had that going for them! This morning, we have more selling going on… The currencies led by the euro and Aussie dollar (A$), are both down significantly, and Gold just can’t seem to find a bid these days. The S&P futures are down early this morning too… So, at this point of the day, it appears that we’ll see a down day, a day of risk aversion, and weaker values. We went into Friday, with the thought that 4 of the largest economies in the Eurozone, were going to send their leaders to a meeting in Rome to work on a plan that would be presented at the European Summit this coming weekend… Well, I don’t know if the Eurozone leaders took my suggestion of coming up with a blueprint on how they will address this debt debacle as a whole, and stop the putting out fires one at a time… I guess we won’t find that out until this next weekend… I sure hope they did, otherwise, I feel that the Eurozone and euro will be in for a world of hurt… In Germany, they did announce that German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, had agreed to underwrite the debt of Germany’s 16 states, which is a form of burden-sharing, and will be called “Deutschland Bonds”, which will give Germany two tiers of bonds… straight Gov’t. bonds, and these new “Deutschland Bonds”… So, what does that have to do with the Eurozone as a whole? Well… what’s good for the goose is also good for the gander, right? So, if Merkel will agree to sharing debt burden within Germany, then why not for the Eurozone? Well… If I were Angela Merkel, I would be very concerned about joint debt sales in the 17-nation currency union, as long as budgets are set by the national governments… In fact, German Finance Minister, Wolfgang Schaeuble, said it all, when he told reporters that, “as long as the national states make the decisions, they have to be liable. If you can spend money on my tab, you won’t be thrifty.” And doesn’t that make sense? Now switch gears, and come across the pond to the U.S. The U.S. Gov’t makes the budgets, and they spend our money… not theirs… which means they don’t have to be thrifty, right? But, apparently this just doesn’t occur or appear in the thought box above a trader’s head that what’s going on in the U.S. is more absurd than what’s going on in the Eurozone. Well… there are two reasons we get away with it folks… the first and biggest reason is the fact that the U.S. dollar is still the reserve currency of the world, and the second reason is that most people in the U.S. don’t give a rat’s tail about how much debt the U.S. has, or worry about how that it will get paid down, or worry about the tax burdens their kids and grandkids are going to have to deal with… Of course, that’s not you, dear readers, but think of yourself as the “minority” when it comes to awareness of this situation here in the U.S. They know all about Greece… Because the media makes a big deal out of a country which has the economy about the size of the economy of the Dallas-Ft. Worth area, and that New York City’s economy is larger than Greece’s… When I go out on the road to talk to people, you would be amazed at the number of people that 1. Don’t know the consequences of these debt burdens here in the U.S., 2. Don’t know that the dollar, even though it’s in rally mode now, has lost a major chunk of its purchasing power, and 3. Don’t know that they can do something to protect themselves from the potential further declines of the dollar… But, as I’ve said… take the Pfennig Readers, and the people I talk to while out on the road, and it’s still a small group, when compared to the U.S. population as a whole… Speaking of a country with debt… Over in Japan, they are set to pass a consumption tax hike bill… This would be a brand spanking new tax on the Japanese people… So, this illustrates what I was just talking about regarding the tax burdens on our grandkids… So, here, in the land of Debt, they will pass a new tax to help pay for Gov’t debt… But… here’s something to think about regarding Japan’s economy… The new tax, if passed this week, will go into effect in 2014… So… don’t you think that the Japanese economy could get boost from consumers rushing out to buy before this tax gets implemented? So, short-term, it could be a good thing… long-term, it’s not such a good thing… I saw a story headline on the Bloomberg this morning that caught my eye… The title: Central Banks Commit to Ease as Threat of Lost Decades Rises… So, if you’re like me, that title intrigued you, and you’ll read on… according to the Bloomberg, “Central Bankers are finding it easier to support their economies than to spur expansion as the prospect of Japanese – like lost decades looms across the developed world.” OK.. Chuck again here… Now, I’ve said that the U.S. was turning Japanese for almost a decade now… and every time the U.S. implements another form of stimulus, and keeps their interest rates near zero, they play right into the Japanese lost decades scenario… Peter Dixon, the global equities economist at Commerzbank, said, “Japan’s experience shows central banks can mitigate the worst effects of the current environment, but it’s going to be very hard for them to stimulate demand.” I think the Fed Heads are finding that to be very true… So… why meddle in the first place? If a country’s economy needs to clean out the excesses then let it! Part of our financial meltdown problem is the fact that the Fed had to meddle in recessions that we the U.S. economy was supposed to experience going back to 2001… Eventually, these problems build up and then spill out… that’s exactly what has happened… the more you meddle, the bigger the problem down the road. Just ask Japan! So… the U.S. data cupboard gets restocked this week, but, for the most part, I believe that the focus will be on the European Summit that will begin on Thursday. But, for those of you keeping score at home… Today we’ll see New Home Sales for May, which should remain about the size of April’s 343,000. Another regional manufacturing report, this time from Dallas. Tomorrow, the S&P/ CaseShiller Home Price Index, and Consumer Confidence. As we go along this week, there will be more, but no sense in talking about them now… But, keep in mind the mantra that has been taken on by the traders once again, and that is… the dollar gets rewarded for awful / weak data in the U.S. strange as it might seem, that’s what’s happening! Well.. I said above that Gold just can’t seem to find a bid lately… and that about says it all! The past few months have really been a test of convictions for Gold owners… I don’t know this to be true, it’s just my opinion, but I would have to think that given the currency debasement going on all over the world, that investors will be seeking out Gold as a store of wealth… It’s just going to take some time, as it will take some time for the sheeple to realize what their Government has been doing to the purchasing power of their currency… And China continues to allow the renminbi to weaken VS the dollar… by small amounts, yes, but still.. this has to be the longest they’ve gone in this direction since 2008… In fact the BRICS are all performing very badly these days… Something I did not foresee a few years ago… These countries had everything going for them… Then There Was This… are you ready to scream at the walls? I just returned from a trip to the wall… Here’s a story that was in the Washington Post this past weekend… enjoy… “One-hundred-thirty members of Congress or their families have traded stocks collectively worth hundreds of millions of dollars in companies lobbying on bills that came before their committees, a practice that is permitted under current ethics rules, a Washington Post analysis has found. The lawmakers bought and sold a total of between $85 million and $218 million in 323 companies registered to lobby on legislation that appeared before them, according to an examination of all 45,000 individual congressional stock transactions contained in computerized financial disclosure data from 2007 to 2010. Almost one in every eight trades — 5,531 — intersected with legislation.” Chuck again… Did you walk away for a moment to visit a wall nearby? To recap… The healing of the risk assets faded on Friday, and an all-out risk aversion is going on this morning, led by the euro and A$… The Eurozone leaders of the 4 largest economies met to hopefully lay out a blueprint to present to the Eurozone Summit attendees this coming weekend… I say hopefully, because if they don’t, The Eurozone and euro are in for a world of hurt… Currencies today 6/25/12… American Style: A$ $1.00, kiwi .7860, C$ .9715, euro 1.2480, sterling 1.5548, Swiss $1.0390, … European Style: rand 8.4565, krone 6.00, SEK 7.0610, forint 230.25, zloty 3.4150, koruna 20.6415, RUB 33.19, yen 79.85, sing 1.2835, HKD 7.7590, INR 57.07, China 6.3630, pesos 13.92, BRL 2.0650, Dollar Index 82.57, Oil $79.18, 10-year 1.63%, Silver $26.73, and Gold… $1,568.10 That’s it for today… A great weekend for my beloved Cardinals… I watched the game on Saturday and couldn’t believe all the red in the stands at the K.C. stadium! WOW! Of course, about 5 years ago, we took Alex to K.C. for a Cardinals’ game, but to see it on TV, that was impressive, Cardinals fans! Penalty kicks? You decide the winner of a game that will decide the European Champion by Penalty Kicks? I like soccer, I played a lot of soccer as a young man, as I grew up in South St. Louis, the soccer capital of the U.S. But, the sport will always lack fans in the U.S. as long as an important game is decided by Penalty Kicks… And with that… I had better stop, and get this out the door… Thank you for reading the Pfennig, and I hope you have a Marvelous Monday! Chuck Butler President EverBank World Markets 1-800-926-4922 1-314-647-3837 www.everbank.com
This Pays You 3X More Retirement Income Self-made millionaire reveals how investors could collect up to 3 times more income than traditional income investments. It’s from a storm proof investment that could keep you cash-rich for the rest of your life. Click here for all the details. — — Confessions of a Billionaire Broker (And why he left Wall Street…) Teeka Tiwari’s confidential connection – known only as the “Billionaire Broker” – discovered a controversial stock selection system when he worked in an investment bank on Wall Street. In a nearly 3-decade historical trial, his system produced an average gain of 2,418% over the top 150 plays held since 1990. That’s enough to turn $100 in each play into over $360,000. The Billionaire Broker will reveal his identity – and how you can take advantage of his stock selection system – on June 14th. Make sure you don’t miss it… Recommended Link Recommended Link • Silver is money… The word literally means “money” in dozens of languages. And that’s no accident.It has preserved wealth for centuries. And it’s survived every financial crisis imaginable.This makes silver an excellent store of value. It’s why we recommend owning it for the long haul.That said, we’re also speculators here at Casey Research. We love opportunities to make massive gains in short periods of time. We especially like to speculate on resources that other investors hate.And that’s the case with silver right now…• Sentiment towards silver is awful… We know this by looking at the Commitment of Traders (COT) report. This is a report issued by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. It shows the positions major traders have taken in certain securities and commodities.In April, the COT report showed a net short position of 40,000 contracts by speculative traders. That’s an all-time high. This means that silver has never been more hated.Now, I know that might seem like a reason to avoid silver. But you must understand something.Trades often get crowded like this just before the trend changes. We saw that happen with the VIX earlier this year. In other words, extremely negative sentiment like this can be a contrarian buy signal.Not only that, all this negative sentiment could turn into buying power if silver starts rising. And that’s because traders don’t own a security when they short it. They borrow it. That said, they must buy that security they’ve shorted when they go to close their position.In other words, all these people who are shorting silver could soon be forced to buy silver if it rises enough. And that would act like rocket fuel for the price of silver.• In closing, silver may be on the verge of a massive “short squeeze”… So consider speculating on silver if you haven’t yet.You can do this by buying the iShares Silver Trust (SLV), which tracks the price of silver. That makes it an easy way to bet on higher silver prices.You could also bet on silver miners. These companies are leveraged to the price of silver, which means their shares would soar if silver makes a big move higher.Just remember that mining stocks are highly volatile, so treat them accordingly. Don’t bet more money than you can afford to lose. Use stop losses. And take profits along the way.Regards, Justin Spittler Cusco, Peru June 13, 2018P.S. Strategic Investor editor E.B. Tucker just uncovered another reason why silver’s set to rally. This is something you probably haven’t considered, so be sure to check out his brand-new video presentation on it right here.You’ll also discover how you can access E.B.’s top silver miner to take advantage of this opportunity. Click here to learn more.Reader MailbagToday, high praise for Doug Casey and his new book Totally Incorrect Volume 2:Justin, thanks so much for holding my copy of Totally Incorrect! Can’t wait to read it! Mr. Casey sounds like a REAL American man—too few of those around now! I am honored to have a “place on his list!” I already feel as if I spent an afternoon with my late father, and now I have more time! Again, thank you for your time and trouble. —Jean Doug’s new book is a must-read around our office. It’s Doug’s most controversial book yet… and you can get it for free. This book is not available anywhere else right now. Learn how to get your copy right here.If you have any questions or suggestions for the Dispatch, send them to us right here.In Case You Missed It…Why is it that some connected Wall Street insiders always seem to be in the right place at the right time just before a stock shoots up?They’re not lucky… or smart…Instead, they know something that the rest of us don’t… The man they’re calling the “Billionaire Broker” reveals the truth tomorrow night. Details here. By Justin Spittler, editor, Casey Daily DispatchImagine losing $4 million in the blink of an eye.It’s painful to even think about. But that’s how much money one trader lost earlier this year by making an all-or-nothing bet against volatility.He wasn’t alone. Countless traders made similar bets on low volatility, only to get smoked.If you’re a regular reader, you know what I’m talking about. If not, here’s a rundown…• Last year was the least volatile year ever for U.S. stocks… The markets were so calm that many investors were lulled to sleep. They threw caution to the wind. Some people even shorted (bet against) volatility.You can see why that was such a bad idea in the chart below. It shows the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX), or what most people call the “fear index.” This index measures how volatile investors expect the market to be over the next 30 days.This chart shows what the VIX has done over the past three years. When this index is high, it means traders expect a lot volatility. When it’s low, it means they’re less fearful. An extremely low reading can even mean that traders are complacent.You can see that the VIX was in a clear downtrend for years…That’s a long time… but nothing lasts forever.And as you can see, the VIX skyrocketed in January. This crushed traders who shorted volatility. At the same time, it rewarded traders who took the other side of this bet. And that’s why I wrote this essay…• A similar opportunity is staring us in the face right now… Only this time, it’s in the silver market.In a minute, I’ll show you how to set yourself up for major gains. But first, let me tell you why this is such a great speculative opportunity.The chart below shows the CBOE Silver ETF Volatility Index, which you can think of as the VIX for silver. It measures how volatile traders expect the silver market to be going forward.As you can see, the CBOE Silver ETF Volatility Index has been in steady decline since 2011. Last year was an especially calm year for the silver market.This is important because, as I showed you earlier, markets are often calmest just before explosive moves.In other words, silver could be on the cusp of something very big. Now, there’s no way to know if it will “break out” to the upside… or head lower.But my money is on the former.There are a couple reasons for this, which I’ll get to in a second. But let me address something important.
The rising level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere means that crops are becoming less nutritious, and that change could lead to higher rates of malnutrition that predispose people to various diseases.That conclusion comes from an analysis published Tuesday in the journal PLOS Medicine, which also examined how the risk could be alleviated. In the end, cutting emissions, and not public health initiatives, may be the best response, according to the paper’s authors.Research has already shown that crops like wheat and rice produce lower levels of essential nutrients when exposed to higher levels of carbon dioxide, thanks to experiments that artificially increased CO2 concentrations in agricultural fields. While plants grew bigger, they also had lower concentrations of minerals like iron and zinc.Fewer nutrients in crops means fewer nutrients in food. People who don’t get enough of the right nutrients are more likely to get sick. For instance, kids who don’t get enough zinc are more likely to contract diseases like malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea.A multidisciplinary research team from Stanford put the puzzle pieces together and saw a potentially disturbing chain of events.”We expect nutrient deficiencies to really increase dramatically from higher carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,” says Dr. Sanjay Basu, assistant professor of medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine and one of the study’s authors. “In the long run, I think it’s likely to cause some chronic problems we haven’t prepared for.” But how many more people would get sick, and what could be done to keep that from happening?To answer this question, the researchers took the data we already know about carbon dioxide and crop nutrients and extended it to future CO2 concentrations. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to rise from 400 parts per million to 550 ppm by 2050.Assuming people keep eating the same things, the researchers were able to predict how many more people would become nutrient-deficient as a result of their less nutritious diets. From there, the researchers then inferred changes in disease rates.The results suggest that rising CO2 will cost the world roughly 125 million disability-adjusted life years – which are roughly equivalent to a year of healthy life – because of higher rates of disease between now and 2050.That number can be hard to wrap your head around, but Dr. Samuel Myers, senior research scientist at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, says that it’s in line with previous estimates of “somewhere between 100-200 million people being pushed into risk of deficiency.” Myers has authored several papers on the effect of CO2 on crop nutrition but wasn’t involved in this study.Most of the people affected would be in areas prone to malnutrition in Southeast Asia and Africa. Developed regions, such as Europe and North America, are unlikely to be heavily affected.Next, the researchers simulated what would happen if countries took steps to mitigate the threat, such as reducing CO2 emissions in line with the Paris Agreement on climate, or passing out zinc pills to affected populations.The researchers found that roughly half of the added disease burden could be avoided if CO2 levels were cut to levels stipulated by the Paris Agreement—480 ppm. But public health initiatives, like iron distribution or malaria mitigation, would only reduce the problem by a 20 percent.”Some of the climate change mitigation policies might be even more effective than public health measures to help avert this problem,” states Basu.Mathematical biologist Irakli Loladze, an associate professor at the Bryan College of Health Sciences in Lincoln, Neb., says that this is the study’s most important finding.”The novel part is their estimate for the effects of various interventions,” Loladze explains. “What’s interesting is that interventions such as zinc or iron supplementation actually have little effect.”Although it’s tempting to believe that nutrient deficiencies are easily solved, Loladze points out it’s often difficult. “Many will often say, ‘Hey, let’s just do supplementation. Everybody will take a pill.’ Which of course is very naive thinking,” Loladze says.He cites iodine as an example. Iodine deficiency has been effectively treated in many places by adding iodine to food staples like salt. Still, hundreds of millions of people remain iodine deficient because their governments lack the money to implement such large-scale health programs.Other warn against taking the authors’ estimates of disease burden too literally. Predictive models are only as good as the numbers they use, and some of the estimates plugged into the model are murkier than others.”We don’t have highly accurate information about what everyone in the world is eating,” says Harvard’s Myers.Myers also highlights the difficulty of linking diet to nutrient deficiency, since the absorption of many nutrients – especially iron – is influenced by a variety of factors such as personal health and whether food contains iron-binding compounds that inhibit absorption. Still, Myers emphasizes that the numbers used in the study are the best we’ve got.A few things could happen to keep the predictions from coming true. Carbon dioxide emissions could be cut, and global diets could shift. Diets have changed dramatically in places like China, where more people are eating meat, a better source of iron than most plant-based foods. Additionally, Myers notes that some crop varieties appear resistant to the CO2-associated decrease in nutrition, and those varieties could provide the foundation for agricultural production in an increasingly CO2-rich atmosphere.The burden of addressing nutrient deficiency is not likely to fall on the people most responsible for the change. In the end, the study highlights how the habits of affluent countries trickle down to affect the world’s poor.”It’s the wealthy people in the world who are emitting lots of carbon dioxide,” Myers says. “Wealthy consumption patterns are putting the poorest, most vulnerable people in harm’s way.” Copyright 2018 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
The Sackler family’s $1.3 million donation to the U.K.’s National Portrait Gallery will not go ahead as planned, as both sides say they’re concerned that allegations of opioid profiteering against the family could overshadow the gift and become a distraction. “It has become evident that recent reporting of allegations made against Sackler family members may cause this new donation to deflect the National Portrait Gallery from its important work,” a spokesperson for the Sackler Trust said. “The allegations against family members are vigorously denied,” the spokesperson’s statement said.The Sackler family owns Purdue Pharma, the company that has made billions of dollars off of OxyContin and is accused of pressuring doctors to prescribe the opioid while also misleading the public about its dangerous addictive qualities.”The Sacklers are major donors to museums, galleries and theaters in the U.S. and Europe,” NPR’s Elizabeth Blair reports. “Artists and activists are putting pressure on those institutions to stop taking their money.”Purdue Pharma has previously admitted to committing a felony and paid millions of dollars in fines, and it’s currently facing numerous lawsuits. But one suit in particular, from Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey, seeks to implicate eight members of the Sackler family, accusing them of trying to maximize their profits even as they knew the painkiller was causing deadly overdoses.Since December, the Massachusetts lawsuit has added new details about the allegations, portraying former Purdue Pharma Chairman and President Richard Sackler as being “obsessed with profits in Massachusetts and the rest of the country,” as member station WBUR reported in January. More revelations emerged after heavy redactions were lifted from Healey’s 274-page complaint last month, showing Purdue Pharma had hired a consulting firm to help its sale reps target “high-prescribing” doctors, as WBUR reported. The lawsuit says that between 2008 and 2016, the painkiller company paid Sackler family members more than $4 billion. In response to the suit, Purdue Pharma said Healey’s conclusions are wrong, and that the company is being used as a scapegoat for America’s opioid crisis.Oxycodone — the semi-synthetic opiate whose forms include OxyContin and other brand names — was the No. 1 cause of overdose deaths in 2011, in cases where at least one specific drug was mentioned. Since then, heroin and fentanyl have become the top overdose threats in the ongoing opioid crisis. But through at least 2016, oxycodone’s overdose rate also rose slightly, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.The Sackler family’s donation to the National Portrait Gallery in London has been in limbo since 2016, when the Sackler Trust presented it as a way to help pay for a construction project. Since then, the BBC reports, “The gallery had been mulling over whether to accept it.”The Sackler Trust and the National Portrait Gallery announced the gift’s withdrawal in a joint statement, with museum officials repeatedly saying the decision had come from the family. “We understand and support their decision not to proceed at this time with the donation,” National Portrait Gallery Chair David Ross said. A gallery spokesperson added: “We fully respect and support the Sackler family’s decision.” Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit https://www.npr.org.
The airline aims to make travel safer for female passengers after two incidents of assault this winter. January 19, 2017 –shares Apply Now » Next Article Staff Writer. Covers leadership, media, technology and culture. Air India, the country’s national airline, announced this week that it will soon set aside two rows on every flight for women passengers who are traveling solo in an effort to combat harassment and sexual assault. The six seats located at the front of the planes will be offered for no additional fees.The move from the airline comes after two incidents this winter. In December, a male passenger groped a woman seated next to him on a flight from Mumbai to Newark. In January, a flight attendant reported a male passenger who exhibited similar inappropriate behavior towards her. Both men were arrested.Related: The Most and Least Reliable Airports and Airlines“We feel, as national carriers, it is our responsibility to enhance comfort level to female passengers. There are a lot of female passengers who travel alone with us and we will be blocking a few seats for them,” Air India general manager Meenakshi Malik told The Hindu.The airline is following the lead of other transportation providers in India, such as buses and trains that have created female-only spaces.In recent years, there have also been a proliferation of Indian startup ride services by and for women.In 2013, SheTaxi, a 24-hour, seven-day-a-week taxi service for women was launched in Kerala. At the beginning of last year, nearly 550 women in Mumbai got permits to be drivers of pink auto rickshaws made to safely transport female passengers. As of this fall, pink rickshaws were also available in Noida, a city about 16 miles from New Delhi. The only list that measures privately-held company performance across multiple dimensions—not just revenue. 2019 Entrepreneur 360 List Nina Zipkin Air India Creates Women-Only Space to Prevent Harassment 2 min read Add to Queue Image credit: Bloomberg | Getty Images Entrepreneur Staff Airlines
“This would be true regardless of race or ethnicity, so we might expect to see menthol flavoring making it more difficult for everyone to quit. The fact that we didn’t find consistency across racial and ethnic groups, we think, might point to the causal role of social influences like tobacco marketing,” he added.Related StoriesTelomere shortening in adulthood is not caused by smoking, say researchersCollege affirmative action bans may increase smoking rates among minority high school studentsStudy reveals how habitual smoking may contribute to development of hypertensionBig Tobacco’s marketing efforts have included heavier advertising of menthols on billboards in predominantly African American neighborhoods, and ads in African American-centric magazines, compared to white communities and periodicals.In addition, the industry has provided philanthropic support to organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the National Urban League, Giovino added.A recent study by Giovino and colleagues suggests that tobacco companies are holding onto the menthol market better than non-menthol cigarettes. “Less quitting by menthol smokers is part of the reason why,” he said.Smokers’ inaccurate perceptions of menthol cigarettes have further compounded cessation efforts, Giovino says.”Some people believe they are less dangerous, even though they are, in epidemiological studies, found to be at least as dangerous as non-mentholated cigarettes,” he said. “Menthol is a topical anesthetic that numbs the respiratory tract. People inhale them more easily, which gives the perception of safety.”The idea for the study stemmed from a conversation between Smith and study co-author Biruktawit Assefa, now with Yale University School of Public Health, who worked with Smith when she was an undergraduate intern at Yale.”We wanted to more conclusively look at whether there are racial differences in how menthol flavoring may impede smoking cessation, across studies published on the topic,” Smith said.Essentially, it’s about social injustice, said Smith, who wants to use research “to give power back to communities from which power has been taken.””It all comes down to power and who has more of it and who has less of it, and why,” Smith added. Banning menthol from tobacco products — which the study recommends — might help shift the power, he said.”Such a policy might effectively take some power away from the tobacco industry and give it back to blacks and African Americans in the U.S.,” Smith said. Source:University at BuffaloJournal reference:Smith, P.H. et al. (2019) Use of Mentholated Cigarettes and Likelihood of Smoking Cessation in the United States: A Meta-Analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz067. Much of the rationale for why menthol flavoring might impede cessation has to do with how menthol flavoring might make the nicotine in cigarettes more reinforcing.” Philip Smith, study’s lead author Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Jun 17 2019For decades, Big Tobacco has sold African American smokers on menthol-flavored cigarettes through targeted marketing campaigns. That’s among the reasons why, in the U.S., black smokers who prefer menthols are 12% less likely to quit smoking compared to non-menthol users, according to the results of a newly published study.The findings, reported today in the journal Nicotine & Tobacco Research, underscore the role that mentholated cigarettes play in smoking cessation efforts, particularly among African American tobacco users, says the study’s lead author, Philip Smith, an assistant professor in the Department of Kinesiology and Health at Miami University (OH).Menthol cigarettes were first sold in the 1920s. The tobacco industry began targeting African Americans in the 1940s and menthol use grew along with the belief that menthols were less dangerous, according to Gary Giovino, the study’s senior author and a professor of community health and health behavior at the University at Buffalo who has extensively studied the marketing and use of menthol cigarettes.The study — a meta-analysis of 19 studies plucked from a review of more than 400 abstracts — looks at the association between menthol use and smoking cessation.The finding that menthol flavoring was associated with less success in quitting smoking among African Americans wasn’t surprising, Smith said. The lack of association for white smokers, however, was.
Paul E. Smith, Lecture Demonstrator for Chemistry, Purdue University This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoFinance DailySeniors With No Life Insurance May Get Up To $250,000 If They Do This…Finance DailyUndoAncestryThe Story Behind Your Last Name Will Surprise YouAncestryUndoFinance101Oprah’s Mansion Costs $90 Million, And This Is What It Looks LikeFinance101Undo In the earliest days of the United States, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail about the celebration of independence, “It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.” “Bonfires and illuminations” refer directly to what we know as pyrotechnics and firework displays. I’m a chemist and also president of Pyrotechnics Guild International, an organization that promotes the safe use of fireworks and using them here in the U.S. to celebrate Independence Day and other festivals throughout the year. As a chemist, and someone who leads demonstrations for chemistry students, I consider fireworks a great example of combustion reactions that produce colored fire. But the invention of colored fireworks is relatively recent and not all colors are easy to produce. Early history of fireworks Firecrackers were first invented serendipitously by the Chinese in 200 B.C. But it wasn’t until one thousand years later that Chinese alchemists developed fireworks in 800 A.D. These early fireworks were mostly bright and noisy concoctions designed to scare evil spirits — not the colorful, controlled explosions we see today. Fast forward another millennium and the Italians figured out how to add color by introducing various elements to the flammable mix. Adding the element strontium to a color pyrotechnic mix produces a red flame; copper, blue; barium, green; and sodium for yellow.Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65860-why-blue-fireworks-are-rare.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35 Too much or too little of the chemicals make significant changes in the temperature and thus the wavelength of color seen. The proper mixture of chemicals when ignited produce enough energy to excite electrons to give off different colors of light. Even though the chemistry of these colors isn’t new, each generation seems to get excited by the colors splashed across the sky. We now have a wide range of flame colors: red, green, blue, yellow, purple, and variations of these. Each color works the same way. As different elements ignite they release different wavelengths of light which translate as different colors. Making that perfect blue firework Not all colors of fireworks are equally easy to create. I believe several of my colleagues in pyrotechnic research and development would agree with me that blue is the most difficult color to produce. That is because the evening sky is a shade of blue, which means that most blues do not show up as well. If you try to make the blue brighter to contrast with the background it can look washed out. The right balance of copper and other chemicals in the flame or combustion reaction produce the best blue color flame in a firework. I have taken this into account when trying to create the best blue flame color, which I call pill box blue. It is just bright enough to stand out against the night sky but still a rich blue. I have over 20 blue pyrotechnic formulas and I have found one that comes very close to this elusive hue. Another difficulty in creating an intense blue color is that the chemistry is not simple. It requires a combination of several chemicals and the element copper. When copper ignites, the electrons surrounding the copper atoms get excited and energized in the flame. When the electrons release this energy, it appears to observers as blue light. Each color works the same way. As different elements ignite they release different wavelengths of light which translate as different colors. So when you see blue-colored dots of light creating a pattern in the night sky, you really are seeing excited electrons releasing energy as blue light. [Expertise in your inbox. 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